18. 19. Frederick Herzberg - had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation.
He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder (Motivators). However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder (Hygiene factors) Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition, promotion and achievement. Hygiene factors are factors which ‘surround the job’ rather than the job itself (job security, Good working conditions, casual Friday and subsidized cafeteria). For example a worker will only turn up to work if a business has provided a reasonable level of pay and safe working conditions but these factors will not make him work harder at his job once he is there. Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Herzberg asserted that job performance is the result of a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic motivators. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are: • Job enlargement – ( horizontal job loading ) workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform (not necessarily more challenging) which should make the work more interesting. It redesigns a job such that the position includes a greater variety of tasks, but does not invest it with greater responsibility and authority • Job enrichment – (( vertical job loading ) involves workers being given a wider range of more complex, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. This should give a greater sense of achievement. Redesigning a job so that the position includes a greater variety of tasks, and is invested with greater responsibility and authority. • Empowerment means delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life. 20. 21. Abraham Maslow – (with Herzberg) introduced Neo-Human Relations School, which focused on psych needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work. All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. I.E, a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job or respect of others.
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- Management, Henri Fayol, scientific management