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Inductionas a mode of reasoning where we move from the particular to universal, as opposed to the case with deductionwhere we reason from the universal to the particular.Species– all x are produced from something wherein nature is organized into an array of forms or species (an eidos) which guides the actualization of all individuals.Potential– all X exist as a undergoing a process of realization wherein their potential exists as a capacity which has yet to become actual, and wherein the realization of this potential capacity comes to guide the disclosure of the particulars existence, i.e. existence is the disclosure of a potentiality (behind all change is a potential to be actualized). -Actualization – The movement of fulfilling potential of producing from potentiality, a state of affairs wherein X end/telos is present within the action being taken. If X is not performed well, then actualization will have been incomplete and the potential of a thing will be left unfulfilled, and as a resultthat individual will fail to have achieved a virtuous state of existence. All movement is either towards or moving away from the actualization of one’s latent telos (discover the potential in the actual).Other Mental Capacities important for attaining virtue – Clevernessand AdroitnessContinence– Endurance of Reason; not soft, not enslaved to the passions, to the body, to the temporary.Connection between Aristotle and the Stoics, Kant, and the Existentialists.107
Human Beings– Rational Animal (zoon logikon) – man as a Social Animal, a Political Animal, man as part rational and part appetitive.Contemplation– The highest good, most pleasing, all else is secondary to its functioning – through contemplation we can get closest we get to god.Masses– Live by fear, self-indulgence, and slaves to their passions; the result of bad law, bad politics, bad education, bad habituation, etc.Existentialism – Sartre’s Claim that there is no I, there is no ego– For Sartre there only exists the transcending negation of consciousness as it nihilates the world-in-itself in order to make the world pre-reflectively present to the individual in a direct, non-mediated, non-thetic, non-conceptual manner. This is the lived-world of the hodologicalmap, intentionality, ready-to-handness, and the immersion of lived-experience. During such experiences there is onlythe living and the doing, there is no conscious thought of “I” doing this or that. And in fact, an “I,” “me,” “ego,” etc., can only appear upon reflection, and even here such would exist only ever as a temporary object OF consciousness, an object created by consciousnessand here Sartre’s point is that these so-called items are notsecretive, elusive, and metaphysically questionable entities lurking behindconsciousness, operating according to secret logics of the “unconscious,” with a “tiny-quiet-I” lurking in all experiences. For Sartre such talk is utter nonsense, and in fact, if we are honest then we can see that a sober phenomenological reflection on lived-experience revels that “I” am