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•Get regular physical activity•Maintain a normal body weight.•Have regular physical examinations.•Get screening: Colorectal, mammograms, pap smears, etc.•Avoid cigarette smoking and other tobacco use.•Be familiar family history and risk factors for cancer.•Get enough sleep•Use sunscreen; avoid tanning beds.•Manage stress•Eat a balanced diet.Warning Signs of Cancer
Cancer TreatmentsObjectives •Understand the goals of cancer treatments•Understand the medical interventions:oRadiation, Chemotherapy, Surgery, Bone marrow transplant•Understand the nursing precautions with chemotherapy and radiation.Goals of treatmentCURE- CONTROL- PALLIATION Cancer Treatment OptionsSurgeries for Cancer (reason for surgery)•Prevention:Removal of nonvital organs to prevent cancer•Diagnostic: Biopsy•Treatment Plan: Clinical staging•Cure or Control: Removal of localized cancer tissue•Palliation: Relief of pain, obstruction, hemorrhage
•Supportive Care: Therapeutic devices•Rehabilitation:ReconstructiveTypes of radiation•External:Radiation comes from a machine outside of the body directed toward the cancer•Internal:Radiation comes form a radioactive source placed in seeds, needles, or thin plastic tubes put in or near the tissue (brachytherapy)•Systemic:Radioactive source in the from of liquid injected or swallowed by the patient that is distributed throughout the body. Precautions with internal radiation•Wear a film at all times•Restrict visitors•Limit each visitor to 30 minutes a day•No visitors less than 16 years of age•Visitors must stay at least 6 feet away from the source•No pregnant visitors/nursesPrevent dislodgement of cervical implantsKeep the patient on strict bed restDecrease the amount of fiber in the dietPrevent Bladder distention
Side Effects of Radiation to the head & neckSkin Complications of radiation
Patient & Caregiver Teaching Radiation Skin Reactions 1. Gently cleanse the skin in the treatment field using a mildsoap (Ivory, Dove), tepid water, a soft cloth, and a gentle patting motion. Rinse thoroughly and pat dry.2. Apply nonmedicated, nonperfumed, moisturizing lotion orcream, such as calendula ointment, aloe gel, Aquaphor, or Biafine cream, to alleviate dry skin. Some substances must be gently cleansed from the treatment field before each treatment and reapplied. Over-the-counter hydrocortisone cream 1% may reduce itching.3. Rinse the area with saline solution. Expose the area to airas often as possible. If copious drainage is present, use astringent compresses (such as Domeboro solution) and nonadhesive absorbent dressings (they must be changed as soon as they become wet). Observe the area daily for signs of infection.4. Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothing such as brassieres and belts over the treatment field.