R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

Is the beneficiary as opposed to the individuals that

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is the . beneficiary. as opposed to the individuals that make it up. Individual . will, and the expression of individual desires, are gene rally not appre- dated in group-oriented cultures, Highlighting the benefits inherent in : the deal for the individuals on the other ream in a group-oriented cul- 'rore will not win you points. .. However, this kind ofnegotiating behavior will be positively received in individual-orlented cultures. In such cultures, one expects decisions to be made more quickly, with positive reactions to the personal benefits ro be reaped with the success of the deal. Personal benefits need to be considered as possible negotiation chips. Personal initiative is highly val- Úed in individuaI-oriented cultures, and you can depend on your oppo- site numbers to take whatever action they deem necessary to overcome obstacles or press their case. Not only is the business group important in group-oriented cultures, but other groups playa key role as individual :stakeholders at the negotiation table, For example, the family. and its iplpact on the businessperson in a -group-oriented culture, plays a sig- hificant role in the businessperson's behavior with you. Business in gen- eral (or at least the completion of a task, such as a deal with you) may not be as important to him or her as maintaining a strong family rela~ t~onship, This will affect the amount oftime 5uch an individual will give to the negotiation, the stress he or she wiIl place on details, the need he cir sh~ may feel that you meet (and maybe become accepted as a "mem- ber" of) the "f.unily," _ This group orientation is particularly strong in South Asian, South European, and African cultures and is somewhat so in most Latin American culteres. In the United States, we like to say that we- want to succeed individually so that we can protect and provide for our famiJies. ,In truth, we would perform the same way whether we had a family to ,p,rovide for or noto In this sense, the United States still glorifies the lone, ~úgged individual, succeeding against all odds (nature, bad guys, and fóreigners, to name just a few) as a valid cultural archetypal hero, For Americans, pragmatism and indivídualism are keys to success, "You can &0 anything ifyou try hard enough," The group, for Americans, tradi- :tionally is represented as the bureaucracy; it just gets in the way. just messes things up. .
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290 SuccessfullntematlonaI Communication Decision-Making Systems Closely aligned with group or individual orientation in a negotiatíon ís the clistinction that cultures make over how decisions are reached. Are they made by the group or by an individual, and, ifby a group, are they determined by consensus <;Ir by a majority? If made by individuals, are the decisions autocratic and ,extremely centralized or diffused among inany individuals throughout the organizatíon? .
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