Properly maintained organiz ing black history clubs

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properly maintained; organiz-ing black history clubs; and creating a pageant highlighting the struggles of black Americans. Especially in February volumes of the Bulletin, he added special suggestions to schoolteachers about maximizing the involvement of the youth in practical ways. During the celebrations there were banquets, breakfasts, speeches, pa-rades, exhibits, and lectures that were usually held in churches, black colleges and universities, and community centers. Woodson insisted that a significant number of the events be free to the public. For this week, he stressed that speakers and organizers must donate their time to the Cause. Schoolteach-ers, mainly black women, were vital Negro History Week organizers. They
Pioneer in Black Studies and History 51 raised funds in their communities and had their students compose essays on famous blacks and events in black history; some encouraged their stu-dents to act in historical plays and pageants taken largely from an anthology written for elementary students entitled Plays and Pageants for the Life of the Negro. 18 After its inception, Negro History Week continued to expand. In his "Annual Reports of the Director," Woodson noted that every year, Negro History Week drew a greater following. In many volumes of the Journal of Negro History after 1926, Woodson devoted brief articles to describing the success of the various programs. He was very pleased that the celebration had eventually made its way into the black churches, self-help organizations, public schools, even into rural areas. In 1932, he noted also that Negro His-tory Week was gaining recognition in white schools, facilitating better "in-ter-racial relations." With each passing year, the black and occasionally the white press advertised local and national events. Early on, the outlets most active in publicizing Woodson's movement were the Philadelphia Tribune, Baltimore Commonwealth, Chicago Defender, Palmetto Leader, Tampa Bulletin, Washington Eagle, and Norfolk Guide and Journal. Later, other more widely distributed newspaper publishers joined in. Various radio stations were in-strumental in publicizing and broadcasting Negro History Week events.19 By the 1940S, Negro History Week celebrations were increasingly popular. Woodson developed elaborate programming schedules. In November 1948, in order to help rural schools with little or no resources, Woodson introduced Negro History Week kits at two dollars apiece. At first, the kits included writ-ings and speeches by famous blacks as well as a play depicting black history. Two years later, Woodson revised them to include many photos of famous blacks as well as a list of books for further research. The cost for this edition was $2.50. But as Negro History Week become more popular, Woodson believed that there was a class of people who were exploiting the celebration for their own benefit. In the Journal of Negro History and the Negro History Bulletin, he routinely warned his readers about "the disastrous methods of pseudo-

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