9 the word orientalism refers to at least three

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9. The word ‘Orientalism’ refers to at least three separate but interrelated meanings: a. an academic tradition or field; b. a worldview, representation, and “style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between "the Orient" and (most of the time) "the Occident"”; c. and as a powerful political instrument of domination (looks at the actual practice of colonialism and imperialism). 10. The principal characteristic of Orientalism is a "subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arab-Islamic peoples and their culture", which derives from Western images of what is Oriental (cultural representations) that reduce the Orient to the fictional essences of "Oriental peoples" and "the places of the Orient"; such cultural representations dominate the communications (discourse) of Western peoples with and about non-Western peoples. 11. These cultural representations usually depict the ‘Orient’ as primitive, irrational, violent, despotic, fanatic, and essentially
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inferior to the westerner or native informant, and hence, ‘enlightenment’ can only occur when “traditional” and “reactionary” values are replaced by “contemporary” and “progressive” ideas that are either western or western-influenced.
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