Lavenda and dods 2012 275 the measurement and

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Lavenda and Dods 2012, 275). The measurement and intervention of governments work in a million little and different ways; for example, through the regulation of educational curriculum or in crafting a national image. These small devises are coupled with larger state interventions such as police presence and restricting movements across borders. One might think that being a citizen of the country in which they live will allow them uninhibited movement within, and for the most part, outside of that country; however, as Banks (2009, 12) argues: …becoming a legal citizen of a nation does not necessarily mean that an individual will attain structural inclusion into the mainstream society and its institutions or will be perceived as a citizen by most members of the mainstream group within the nation. A citizen’s racial, cultural, linguistic, and religious characteristics often significantly influence whether she is viewed as a citizen within her nation. From this quote, we recognize that the members of certain groups become marginalized even if they acquire the language and culture of the mainstream dominant culture, because of their racial, cultural, linguistic or religious characteristics. The national character of Canada will indeed continue to change. What does the future of Canada look like? According to a relatively recent publication 150 years of immigration to Canada (2016) by Statistics Canada: 1. Since the early 1990s, the number of landed immigrants has remained relatively high, with an average of approximately 235,000 new immigrants per year 2. The National Household Survey estimated the foreign-born population at 6,775,700, representing 20.6% of the total population 3. According to the 2011 National Household Survey, Asia (including the Middle East) is now the main continent of origin of the immigrant population, although Africa's share has increased. With such a diverse populous, how does the Canadian state work to exude its power over its residents? One way to control its residents is for the state to educate them on the importance and power of the state. Banks (2008, 135) writes that mainstream citizenship education “reinforces the status quo and the dominant power relationships in society .... it does not challenge or disrupt the class, racial, or gender discrimination in the schools and society” (135). As per Osler and Starkey (2003), states work to shape citizens through education systems and other specialized programs (like those associated with immigrant integration). This education instructs its students on how to be a part of the imagined community (see our text for a definition of this term by Benedict Anderson). By contextualizing students’ present place in the nation’s past histories and future plans, the state creates a sense of nationhood in each student and supports the idea that the state is a benevolent and democratic system created by and for the people. Osler and Starkey argue that despite the goal of trying to educate citizens in a single narrative, learners understand this information variously. How well were you educated in Canadian state narratives?

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