● Image formation with a concave mirror - Ray diagrams showing the image formed by a concave mirror when the object is (a) beyond the center of curvature and (b) between the center of curvature and the focal point. Object located outside C: Image is: INVERTED REAL REDUCED (|M|<1).
● Reverse rays: Object located between C and F: Image is: INVERTED REAL MAGNIFIED (|M|>1). Object located inside F: Image is: Upright (M is positive) VIRTUAL MAGNIFIED (|M|>1). ● Summary of sign conventions - Object distance, d o, is + if the object is in front of the mirror. Object distance, d o, is - if the object is behind the mirror. Image distance, di, is + if the image is in front of the mirror (real image). Image distance, di, is - if the image is behind the mirror (virtual image). For a concave mirror, focal length, f, is + For a convex mirror, focal length, f, is - ● Refraction of Light: Lenses - Light can travel through many different media, such as solids, liquids, and gases, although it does so at different speeds. When light passes from one medium, such as air, into another medium, such as glass, the difference in speeds leads to a change in the direction of travel. This directional change or bending lies at the heart of some remarkable effects, depending on the nature of the materials and their shapes. The change in direction of travel is also responsible for rainbows and the sparkle of diamonds. It is the basis for the important field of fiber optics. Countless applications and devices are made possible through the property of the refraction of light. ● spherical abberation - optical problem that occurs when all incoming light rays end up focusing at different points after passing through a spherical surface. ● paraxial rays - Rays that lie close to the principle axis ● ray tracing - gives orientation of image as well as qualitative information on its location and size ● mirror equation - provides precise quantitative information without drawing ● virtual image - no light passes through image; upright, smaller than object, and located between mirror and the focal point F ● real image - light passes through image; real, inverted, farther from mirror and larger than the object ● Magnification - the ratio of the height of the image of the object ● Refraction - When a wave enters a new medium at an angle, one side of the wave changes speed before the other side, causing the wave to bend. the bending of wave fronts and change in direction of propagation due to a change in speed. When light strikes the interface between two media, part of the light is reflected and the remainder is transmitted across the interface. The change in the direction of travel as light passes from one medium into another is called refraction. Light SLOWS DOWN as it enters a more dense (higher refractive index) medium.
- Spring '14
- Total internal reflection, Geometrical optics, rays