Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

Exercise isomers match the organic compound in column

Info icon This preview shows pages 168–172. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Exercise: Isomers Match the organic compound in Column A with its isomer Column B: 154
Image of page 168

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES - GRADE 12 9.6 Column A Column B CH 3 CH(CH 3 )OH CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 3 H C H H C H H C H H C H H H H C H H C H H C CH 3 H H H C CH 3 H C H H C H H H C 3 H 7 OH 9.6 Functional groups All organic compounds have a particular bond or group of atoms which we call its functional group . This group is important in determining how a compound will react. Definition: Functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a specific group of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of. In one group of organic compounds called the hydrocarbons , the single, double and triple bonds of the alkanes, elkenes and alkynes are examples of functional groups. In another group, the alcohols, an oxygen and a hydrogen atom that are bonded to each other form the functional group for those compounds. All alcohols will contain an oxygen and a hydrogen atom bonded together in some part of the molecule. Table 9.1 summarises some of the common functional groups. We will look at these in more detail later in this chapter. 9.7 The Hydrocarbons Let us first look at a group of organic compounds known as the hydrocarbons . These molecules only contain carbon and hydrogen. The hydrocarbons that we are going to look at are called aliphatic compounds . The aliphatic compounds are divided into acyclic compounds (chain structures) and cyclic compounds (ring structures). The chain structures are further divided into structures that contain only single bonds ( alkanes ), those that contain double bonds ( alkenes ) and those that contain triple bonds ( alkynes ). Cyclic compounds include structures such as the benzene ring . Figure 9.5 summarises the classification of the hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds are called saturated hydrocarbons because each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Figure 9.6 shows a molecule of ethane which is a saturated hydrocarbon. 155
Image of page 169
9.7 CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES - GRADE 12 Name of group Functional group Example Diagram Alk ane C C Ethane C C H H H H H H Alk ene C C Ethene C C H H H H Alk yne C C Ethyne (acetylene) H C C H Halo-alkane C X (X=F,Cl,Br,I) Chloroethane C CH 3 X H H Alcoh ol / alkan ol C OH Ethanol H C C H H H OH H Carboxylic acid C O OH ethanoic acid CH 3 C O CH 3 Amine N R H H Glycine C H H N H H C O OH Table 9.1: Some functional groups of organic compounds Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they don’t contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Figure 9.7 shows a molecule of ethene which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. If you compare the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms 156
Image of page 170

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 9. ORGANIC MOLECULES - GRADE 12 9.7 Aliphatic hydrocarbons Acyclic compounds (chain structures) Cyclic compounds (ring structures e.g. benzene ring)
Image of page 171
Image of page 172
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern