Whether this pre animistic stage should be classified

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Whether this pre-animistic stage should be classified as 12 The Melanesians (1891).
9 "religion," or whether it is a perspective from which "religion" developed , has been a matter of debate. 13 III. The Volitional Explanation . "Volition," by the way, is just a fancy term for the human act of will ...as in the word "voluntary" (doing something of your own "free will"). This is a title that I have "made up"...rather than being one that is commonly used. So, you won't find it in your textbook. This explanation, put forward by Daniel Brinton, 14 notes that, in the case of human beings, action is preceded by volition. For example, one thinks about reaching for a certain object...and then the hand moves forward to grasp it. "Will" is prior to action. So, why not assume that actions in nature are similarly preceded by an act of will? 15 Brinton cites the case of the Dakota Sioux Indians, among whom the force called wakonda (roughly equivalent to the Melanesian mana ) is the deification of that peculiar quality or 13 King, Introd ., p. 31, does not quite equate the two, citing the opinion of Marett (The Threshold of Religion ?). 14 Religions of Primitive Peoples (1897), pp. 47, 60, 164 (as cited in Leuba, Psychological Study of Religion , p. 72). 15 This concept of "will," however, does not necessarily begin with the concept of individual deity, but rather with an inexhaustible and impersonal "source."
10 power of which man is conscious within himself as directing his own actions, or willing a course to bring about certain results. 16 [emphases added] Then the author concludes: The...origin of all religious thought, is the recognition, or if you please, the assumption, that conscious volition is the ultimate source of all Force . It is the belief that behind the sensuous, phenomenal world, [yet] distinct from it, giving it form, existence, and activity, lies the ultimate, invisible, immeasurable power of Mind , of conscious Will, of Intelligence, analogous in some way with our own... 17 IV. Religion as a Response to the Numenous The noun "numenous" was coined by Rudolph Otto...in his influential book entitled The Idea of the Holy . 18 It is derived from the Latin noun numena , used, for example, by Roman 16 Brinton, quoting a Miss Fletcher, according to Leuba, Psychological Study of Religion , p. 72. 17 Brinton, as cited in Leuba, ibid ., pp. 72-73. 18 New York: Oxford University Press, 1958 (first published in 1917). For excerpts and discussion, see John Lyden, Enduring Issues in Religion (1995), pp. 33-38; Allie M. Frazier, Issues In Religion (1975), pp. 179-189.
11 farmers...to designate the powers or spirits which inhabited special places around them. Otto uses the term to refer to that which, when encountered by humans, is extraordinary, uncanny, incomprehensible, awe- evoking, dreadful...and which overwhelms one with a sense of powerlessness, dependence, creaturliness. There are moments when humans stand in the presence of something that is sensed to be "Wholly Other"...in reaction to which, states Otto, one's soul "trembles inwardly to the farthest fibre of its being." 19 One has come face-to-face, he says, with that which can accurately be

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