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Is “normative”: assumes traits and often implies valueHow do they influence our sense of self?1.Race and Ethnicity2.Gender3.Sexual Orientation4.Socioeconomic Status income, job, fashion, etc.5.Social Comparison: upward and downwardThe self is multi-dimensional assumes physical, moral, and cognitive featuresPhysical – large, attractive, athleticCognitive self – intelligence and aptitudes Moral self – sensitive or not, etc.
The development of the self is a process it changes based on time and contextWe develop ego boundaries and a self-conceptEgo boundariesA clear recognized separation between ourselves, others, and our environment. Newborn babieshave no ego boundaries.Self-ConceptA sense of self, our features, our abilities, and our potentialPerceptionIs the active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and activities.The Process of Human Perception1) SELECTION•Qualities of the phenomena–Things that stand out: loud, bright, fast•Self-indication–Things that our personal circumstances dictate•Are you hungry? You might notice the smell of food, or look specifically for restaurants
•Did you recently break up with someone? You might notice couples in public (making you sad), or might be drawn to attractive people more than usual•Culture influences what we expect, notice2) ORGRANIZATIONFour Cognitive Schemata1)Prototype– Our Ideal2)Personal Construct– the yardstick we use to measure3)Stereotype– categories and generalizes about people and situations4)Script – Defines what we are expected to do3) INTERPRETATIONAttributionAn explanation for why something happened or why something is a certain way.External Attribution:cause is outside of the self.Internal Attribution:cause is the self.Example: Maria’s car breaks down on the freeway. If she believes the breakdown happened because of her ignorance about cars, she is making an internal attribution. If she believes that the breakdown happened because her car is old, she is making an external attribution.Attribution ErrorsSelf-Serving Bias:We tend to see ourselves in a positive light.We tend to minimize or ignore negative information about the self.We overestimate positive outcomes and underestimate negative outcomes. Fundamental Attribution ErrorWe tend to over-estimate the degree to which others’ actions are dictated by internal traits (locus) instead of externalInfluences on Perception1.PhysiologyDifferent sensory ability levels for different peopleInfluenced by physical/mental states like stress or tiredMedical conditions like blindness or deafness2.AgeDifferences between old and youngEX: A child sees a year as a long time, while an old person just sees years fly by.