Caste system divided group of people into categories

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-caste system (divided group of people into categories based upon occupation)-elite landowning class-rise catholic church-new class and race hierarchySpanish American War 1898-used explosion in Cuba as pretext for war against Spain-Spanish defeatedParis Peace treaty 1898 -signing of then grants to US the former spanish Territories:Puerto Rico, Cuba (US protection), PhilippinesCuba not US territory but US protection-Peace treaty favored US but Cuba itself was leased and still is by US-now used as a prison-US handed control of panama canal (still has military relations in terms of control)1898 US replaces Spain in terms of relationship with the Philippines-Aguinaldo declared independence from Spain-Admiral George Dewey(representing the US) entered Manila Bay against Spain (Aguinaldo and Dewey become allies before evolving into foes due to conflict)-Ownership transfer to US for 20 million dollarsColonialism of Philippines was not passively acceptedTaxation & Landlessness-Because Filipinos were not citizens, they were not allowed to own land-Even some tenants would not allow them to rent a room -Many fees, including taxes, were taken out so Filipinos took home a very small amount of the pay they actually earnedLabor recruitment:Need for Filipino Labor because: Agriculture labor shortage, 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, 1907 Gentleman’s Agreement, 1917 Barred Zone Act, 1924 Immigration ActTypes of employment:-Agriculture (plantation and migrant labor 60 percent)-Service and domestic (25 percent), Alaskan canneries (9 percent)- Filipinos had an ambiguous status (they were US nationals, but not citizens)-Free migration with no political rightsBenevolent Assimilation-Benevolent Assimilation (1898)-Proclamation by President Mckinley-American ideals and beliefs taught by hundreds of American school teachersto teach younger generations-Administered by US military with transition to civilian government
Pull factors:-HSPA Recruitment:-HSPA (Hawaiian Sugar Planters Association) divide and conquer strategy: -Weaken Japanese Labor Resistance-HSPA primary recruiters-Sending provinces (Illocano and Cebuano) (dialects differ)-Pensionado Act, 1903-Filipino student study in US-Preparation for government positions in the Philippines (part time domestic employment)1882 Chinese Exclusion of Labor Act(Congress AIFC by race)1907 Gentlemen’s Agreement (United States would not impose restrictions on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further emigration to the United States)1917 Immigration Act(South Asian region (1917) Congress AIFC by color)1924 Immigration Act (quotas set for non-White immigrants)-all of these acts contributed to the need for agricultural labor Demand for cheap labor-With all of the exclusion outlined above, there was a need for the cheap labor that Whites would either want too much pay for or wouldn’t have the discipline to successfully complete (needed endurance and determination b/c long hours and tedious labor). Identity: -Filipinos were not naturalized US Citizens; rather they were US Nationalswho had the ability to be in the United

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