property - which eliminate the incentives for war. By studying hundreds of interstate conflicts over the past two centuries, McDonald finds that only economic freedom is closely correlated with peace. That's because regulatory barriers to trade spark international political conflict, not co-operation. And businesses that enjoy trade protection like military conquests. It's how they expand their markets. These are general rules and it's a messy world. America's free markets and democracy did not stop it invading Iraq. Yet a 2005 study by the Cato Institute, an American think tank, found " economic freedom is about 50 times more effective than democracy in diminishing violent conflict". If we want the age of world peace to last, that's what we need to focus on.
Incentives have changed – going to war no longer makes sense Goldstein , professor emeritus of international relations at American University, and Pinker , psychology professor at Harvard, 2011 [Joshua S. Goldstein and Steven Pinker. “War is really going out of style.” The New York Times. December 18, 2011. Lexis.] AP Why is war in decline? For one thing, it no longer pays. For centuries, wars reallocated huge territories, as empires were agglomerated or dismantled and states wiped off the map. But since shortly after World War II, virtually no borders have changed by force, and no member of the United Nations has disappeared through conquest . The Korean War caused a million battle deaths, but the border ended up where it started. The Iran-Iraq War killed 650,000 with the same result. Iraq's annexation of Kuwait in 1990 backfired . Israel seized land in 1967, but since then most has been returned and the rest remains contested. The futility of conquest is part of the emergence of an international community regulated by norms and taboos and wielding more effective tools for managing conflicts. Among those tools, the United Nations' 100,000 deployed peacekeepers have measurably improved the success of peace agreements in civil wars. War also declines as prosperity and trade rise. Historically, wealth came from land and conquest was profitable. Today, wealth comes from trade, and war only hurts. When leaders' power depends on delivering economic growth, and when a country's government becomes richer and stronger than its warlords, war loses its appeal. Potential impact on the market prevents war Gartzke and Li 2003 [Erik Gartzke, Columbia University, and Quan Li, Pennsylvania State University. “War, Peace, and the Invisible Hand: Positive Political Externalities of Economic Globalization.” International Studies Quarterly 47. 561-586. 2003.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 162 pages?
- Fall '13
- Snake River, lower Snake River, freeflowing river