View invariant and high discriminability: geons can be identified if they’re viewed in any kind of perspective geons can be discrimnated easilyStep above from other thoeries
-Noise resistant: we can recongize objects in noise if we can see the geons. How well we can do this depends on visibility of geons -accounts for how we are able to recognize objects from different viewpoints-Explains why object recongition can stil happen in visual noiseWeakness: -only emphasizes component pieces and doesn’t say much about top-down processesRecognition by views-ackolwledges importance of viewpoints-recongizing an object is affected by the viewpoint that we see it at -we recongize objects best when presented in dominant form novel viewpoints of objects lead to worse or slower recognition-we hold different representations for different views of obejctsEx: tricycle in two viewsThese theories are goodBut: Things like our environment and our context affect how we see and what we are going to recongizeContext and Knowledge (top-down processing in perception)Context effects:the influence of proximate stimuli and the situation on the perceptual experience of a stimulus. -Recognizing someone’s hand, for instance, significantly limits the possible interpretations of the objects on that person’s wrist to either a watch or a bracelet; itis not likely to be a chair or an elephant. This a prioriknowledge allows the visual system to sensitize the corresponding visual representations of a watch and a bracelet so that it is easier to recognize the surrounding objects when we attend to them. Ex: moon illusionthe tendency for the moon to appear different in size depending on where it is in the sky. Apparent-distance theory:an explanation for the moon illusion; it posits that the moon on the horizon appears larger because ‘’distance’’ cues lead the observer to perceive it as being farther away than the zenith moon. Letters in Context A profound example of the effect of context on word and letter perception is the jumbled word effect.– the ability to read words in sentences despite having mixed-up letters in the middle of some of the words. -Your expectations regarding what the words in the sentence will be help you to determine what the words actually are. Another well-documented example of how letter perception is affected by context is the word superiority effect-the finding that it is easier to correctly perceive a letter when it appears in a real word than when it appears in a non-word.
-Because after ‘’years of fast reading’’ we are able to ‘’more efficiently map strings of tentatively identified letters to real words’’. Parallel distributed processing (PDP): a model of perception according to which different features are processed at the same time by different ‘’units’’ (simple processingelements) connected together in a network. Ex: suppose you are shown a four-letter word, such as trap. The first unit, which is a horizontal line at the top of a letter, is consistent with the hypothesis that the first letter is a t. this hypothesis is also consistent with the possibility that the word is