Medical sciences need a lot more trial and error, where evidence is built up1As far as the proof is verifiable and the verifiers can be trusted. The absolute certainty is herealso decreased by the human factor: the proof is as certain as the quality of the provider of the proofand the verifiers of the proof. Automation shifts the problem to the tool, which also in some wayoriginates in fallible human beings.
30RESEARCH IN SYSTEMS ARCHITECTING5.3hard soft mathematics physics medicine human sciences prove prediction statistics descriptive reasoning charlatan handwaving architecting methods example: security crypto biometric identification human factor certainty confidence evidence based plausible convincing no science soft science hard science legend Figure 5.3: Spectrum of sciencesin extensive statistical studies. The evidence is hampered by many factors thatinfluence the outcome of the medical study, but that are outside the control of theexperimenter. Worse is that many of the factors are unknown to the experimenterand his peers. Cause and result are often more ambiguous than people realize.Despite all these disclaimers the medical sciences have created a large body ofknowledge.The human sciences (psychology, sociology, pedagogy, et cetera) have alreadya tremendous challenge in making statements plausible. Human behavior showsa wide variation, depending on many factors, such as culture, age, gender, andstatus. Individual human behavior is often poorly predictable. Case descriptionsare used in a heuristic approach. The step from case descriptions to a workablehypothesis needs a lot of interpretation. Adding more case descriptions will helpin making the issue more plausible, but hard evidence is nearly impossible. Amore experimental approach with small scale experiments is possible, but theseexperiments are often highly artificial.The scientific community dislikes the charlatans, who can be very convincingby hand-waving arguments, but in fact are selling hot air.Architecting integrates all of these different types of sciences, from mathe-matical to human sciences. For instance in security design cryptographic proofis important, and also biometrics authentication. However a security solution thatdoes not take the human behavior into account fails even before it is implemented.Research of architecting methods is inherently the combination of hard facts
5.3CHALLENGES TO DO RESEARCH IN A SCIENTIFIC WAY31in an environment full of soft factors. Most of present-day hard disciplines (math-ematics, physics, electronics, mechanics, et cetera) are frightened away by the softfactors. Most of the soft disciplines (psychology, philosophy, business manage-ment) have no affinity with the complexity in the hard facts. The challenge in thesystems discipline is to tackle the soft factors, with sufficient understanding of thehard side.