Social group: consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a commonidentity and a feeling of interdependenceoPrimary group: small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion based interactions over an extended period of timeoSecondary group: larger more specialized group in which members engage in more-impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited period of time.oIngroup: a group to which a person belongs with which the person feels a sense ofidentityoOutgroup: a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostilityoReference group: serve as point of reference in making evaluations and decisionsErving GoffmanDramaturgical Analysis: the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentationFront stage and back stageSocial script: a playbook that the actors use to guide their verbal replies and overall performance to achieve the desired goal of the conversation to fulfill the role they are playingImpression management: refers to people’s efforts to present themselves to others in waysthat are most favorable to their own interests or imageFace-saving behavior: refers to the strategies that people use to rescue their performance when they experience a potential or actual loss of face.Front stage: the area where a person performs a specific roleBack stage: the area where a person is not required to perform a specific role.Leadership: refers to the ability to influence what goes on in a group or social systemInstrumental leadership: goal or task orientedExpressive leadership: provides emotional support for membersDecision-making StylesoAuthoritarian leaders make all major group decisions and assign tasks to membersoDemocratic leaders encourage group discussion and decision making through consensus building
oLaissez-faire leaders are only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisionsGroup ExperimentsSolomon Asch Group ConformitySolomon Asch conducted a classic experiment that showed the power of groups in generating conformityArranging students around a table, he showed them a lineHe asked them to match the line to one of three shown on a cardOne-third of all subjects conformed the others by answering incorrectly.Stanly MilgramStudied obedienceHe assigned subjects to the roles of “teacher” and “learner”Teachers applied false shocks to learners in response to incorrect answersHe found people are likely to follow direction even when it means inflicting harm on another person.
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- Spring '08
- Sociology, social position, Macro level view