Note however that most academic institutions are

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Note however that most academic institutions are overwhelmingly liberal (whichis precisely why more cons researchers may escape from them and get jobs with think-tanks)Though Chomsky doesn't include them, some regard academic institutions asthe equivalent of liberal think tanksoFlakLobby/activists/monitoring groups harass media if they don't like media coverage orpolicyFlak groups used to threaten some kind of legal action (back when there was a FD), nowthe threat is more like bad PR, or some threat to profitabilityE.g. Although entertainment, and largely 'grassroots' (not associated with a group), theReagan movie incident is a sample of media aversion to bad PRA guy makes a website to boycott CBS for 1 weekThe networks Sweeps Week affects what they can charge for advertising for theentire year; hurting their rating for that 1 week will affect their profitability the entire yearE.g. FoxNews parted ways with Beck because libs convincedadvertisersthey'd boycottthem if they continued to advertise in Beck's show (FowNews doesn't care that much if liberalsboycott FN…because they don't like FN…unless it is the case that they are an important part ofFN's market)What you should really do is boycott the advertisers that are on Beck's showTwo major flak providers are AIM (conservative) and FAIR (liberal)oThreat of being called a communist?If it’s the 60s/70s and you're saying something against the system, you would be called acommunistMaybe after 9/11, the equivalent might have the threat of being called sufficiently anti-terroristIf the media wants to be critical, some journalists won't be as critical because it is badfor their career to be branded as a communist etc.Informational Biases of MediaoArgues re political biases are pretty stable:Cons note overwhelming tendency of journalists to be liberal, cite FoxNews as onlyreservoir of 'non-lib' media (and thus $ rewarded for serving market)Libs…particularly Far left…say that even if media leans left on "Dems/Reps" spectrum,corporate concerns and newsgathering rituals lean right
oSome info bias issues, however, don't easily map onto political dimensionsoWe can think in terms ofuser habitsandnews industryhabitso'Pew research center' and others track changes with:Cable and internet (up) and everything else is downOnline news usage?Hindman observes: "Liberals dominate the audience for politics online. Across awide range of politically relevant activities…liberals outpace conservative by a wide margin"So Liberals have more sites and get more traffic with online news sources'non-users' are twice as likely to self-identify as cons whereas "users" are nearlyequal in terms of libs/con self identificationResearch on 'link-clicks' seems to support the 'echo chamber/cyber-balkanization' hypothesesSocial networks and news consumption?

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Term
Winter
Professor
Mullin
Tags
Media, Mass Media, Propaganda, Concentration of media ownership, FoxNews

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