• Domestic animals also used, such as the water buffalo. • Mud brick for building.
The Bronze Age The Bronze Age in India began around 3300 BCE. Bronze helped the Dravidians expand their agriculture. Bronze was also used for art, weapons, and tools. Bronze tools, Indus Valley Bronze dancing girl, circa 2500 BCE
Earliest Phase-Ravi (3300-2800 B.C.)
21 Harappa and Mohenjo-daro were the two major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Both cities had large granaries and citadels. These suggest that the cities were centers of political power. Harappa Mohenjo- daro Indus Valley Civilization
22 The Indus Valley Civilization is also referred to as Harappan culture. It is named after the capital city of Harappa. In addition to wheat, barley and cotton, Harappans grew peas, sesame seeds, and dates. Harappan priest-king
Middle Harappan-Integration Era 2600-1900 BC • By 2500 BCE, communities had been turned into urban centers (integration). • Six such urban centers have been discovered, including: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro and Dicki in Pakistan, along with Gonorreala, Dokalingam and Mangalore in India. • In total, over 1052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar- Florence River and its tributaries. • Irrigation used to increase crop production and mud brick structures.
24 Harappans developed irrigation, which allowed them to grow more food. At least 1,052 Harappan settlements have been found. Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan) sites
Indus Valley-Integration Era
26 The Harappans had a system of uniform weights and measures. Engineers used the decimal division of measurement. Brick sizes were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. Weights were based on units of 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce and Greek uncia . Harappan Facts
27 They used copper, bronze, lead, and tin. They built docks for ships and measuring tides. They had string instruments. They practiced yoga. They used ox-driven carts, river boats, and sailboats to transport goods. They traded with people from Afghanistan to Mesopotamia. Harappan Facts
28 Most city residents were traders or artisans. They made beads, seals, and earthenware.
29 The earliest examples of Indus script (writing) come from Harappan sites 5,500 years old. Harappan Script
30 Harappan writing used about 400 different symbols. Archaeologists have not been able to translate Harappan pictographs. Thousands of clay seals and copper tablets have been found. Harappan Seals
31 From 2300-1750 BCE the Harappans traded with the Persians and Mesopotamians. They imported Sumerian wool, leather, and oil. They exported copper, ivory, pearls, and gems. Most trade was done by sea. Trade Sumeria Mesopotamia Persia Indus Valley Lothal
Himalayan Mountains • Nanga Parbat and numerous other mountains of the Himalaya, Karakorum and Hindu Kush provide a continuous source of water for the Indus and its tributaries.
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