For some purposes eg sending an email the client

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For some purposes, e.g. sending an email, the client might simply resend later. This can result in the same email being sent once but received 1 or more times. Financial protocols have to be stateful , to avoid missed or du- plicate payments. The final message can be re-requested later until both initiator and respondent are in certain and compatible states concerning an identified transaction.
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Anonymous money 1 Probably the most useful form of anonymous money cur- rently is conventional cash. You don't have to know who is spending it to authenticate it when you accept it, and you don't have to say who you are when you spend it. But cash isn't used for Internet purchases. In the early 1990ies, a number of libertarians designed, developed and campaigned for the concept of digital anonymous cash. This digital money was cryptographically "blinded" so as to pre- vent the bank knowing who was paying how much for what, while including protocols preventing double spending of di- gital tokens.
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Anonymous money 2 One reason why anonymous digital cash may be less neccessary than advocates including Hettinga and Chaum suggested is due to data protection laws pre- venting unwarranted use by banks of customer re- cords. Another factor concerns the improved secur- ity the bank customer obtains precisely from the ac- counting carried out by the bank. Sacrificing this for anonymity is likely to be something few will feel the need to do other than for small payments.
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The Bitcoin network This involves cryptographic discovery and signing of special numbers or 'Bitcoins' which results in proof of work. Initial and earlier 'mining' efforts were more productive of new valid Bitcoins than later as there exist a finite amount to be discovered. Validation of the next transac- tion block results in knowledge of which cryptography keys control which identified Bitcoins. This involves network 'consensus' between those engaged, so security depends upon no single party or conspiracy being able to establish a majority vote. Accepting and spending these in a genuinely 'anonymous' way seems difficult, as is securing a wallet. Dealers between Bitcoins and other currencies are at risk of conventional payment repudiation unless con- tract terms enforce use of cleared funds only. Some have likened this network to a Ponzi scheme as holder belief in value and lack of un- derwriting creates similar financial characteristics.
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Limits of anonymous finance Electronic cash can probably never provide absolute anonym- ity because this conflicts with Carlan's third law of politics, that: "power abhors a vacuum". The state would use any means at its disposal to close down those visibly underwrit- ing a financial system sufficiently anonymous to be usable for an assassination market, because the latter would dir- ectly conflict with a primary purpose of the state. If the net- work were not underwritten, the state would pursue those advertising acceptance of anonymous payments. This doesn't prevent development of useful payment systems e.g. based upon the London Oyster Card where the recipient of small amounts of money can't identify the person making the payment.
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