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Both counsels argue and sum up judge will render a

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Both counsels argue and sum up. Judge will render a decision.6AppealAn appeal may be lodged with the appropriate appeal Court shortly after the trial judgment ishanded down.Court CostsExpense that litigants incur when they bring their dispute before the court for resolution. Theexpense of maintaining court offices and the services that they provide. The plaintiff usually asksthe court to order the defendant to pay these costs along with the damage or relief requested.Fees are awarded at the discretion of the court, on party-and-party basis. If no valid defenseor the plaintiff’s claim was entirely unfounded, losing party was obliged to pay the entire legalexpenses. This is a solicitor-and-client basis.Contingency FeesLawyer’s fee is contingent on the lawyer winning the case. Canadian thinks this will encouragefrivolous litigation and compromised greed for profit. Contingency fee system may expand theaccess to justice.Class ActionsA single person could stand as the representative for an entire class of similar individuals.Costly to go hundreds of trials on the same facts.The cost of proving a complex casecould be greater than the possible damages and costs awarded to a single person, otherwise noone would have stepped forward.Remind the society that large profit from a tiny wrong doneto many people is not a technique that will escape justice.First require identification and legal recognition of a class.Once certified as a class, much like the normal litigation. Difficult to assess the damages inclass actions, often a settlement is reached between the class and a defendant.The Law ReportsRegional reports and comprehensive national reports, specialized reports, and online reports.Case CitationsWriting a case reference.In terms of names of the parties, followed by the year the case was decided, the volume andname of the report, and the page.Names of all law reports are referred to by their initials.List all of the reports in which the case may be found. Electronic law report has different
citation manner.Administrative TribunalsBoards or commissions charged with the responsibility of regulating certain business activities.Administrative tribunals have only the powers granted to them under the legislation thatthey are directed to enforce. A hearing is held.Ad hoc tribunals can be established to deal with a particular dispute, frequently found in thearea of labor relations.Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)In addition to regulatory tribunals, tribunals are used as alternatives to the courts to deal withdisputes. Advantage: ①speed of the hearing, ②the informality and confidentiality of theproceedings, and ③the lower cost. The usual method is by arbitration.

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Term
Spring
Professor
JoshuaSera

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