d.iii.1.b.iii. The cell swells (lyse) d.iii.1.c. Hypertonic d.iii.1.c.i. Concentration in cell is high and the potential for water to move out of the cell d.iii.1.c.ii. The cell shrinks (crenates) e. Carrier Mediated Transport e.i. Passive e.i.1. Facilitated diffusion e.ii. Active e.ii.1. Active transport e.iii. Regulated by some kind of stimulus e.iv. Uniporters e.iv.1. Will transport one solute in one direction across the plasma membrane e.v. Symporters e.v.1. Will transport 2 or more solutes in one direction across the plasma membrane e.vi. Antiporter e.vi.1. Will transport 2 or more solutes in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.
e.vii. Facilitated Diffusion e.vii.1. This is how we absorb glucose to our body cells e.vii.1.a. Called GLUT e.vii.1.b. Glucose is in the extracellular fluid, glucose binds up to the receptor, opening up on the E face, and dumping glucose to the cytoplasm f. Primary Active Transport f.i. Example of an antiporter f.ii. Sodium-potassium exchange pump f.ii.1. 3 sodium out, 2 potassium in f.ii.2. To move sodium out of the cell and potassium in to the cell, it is going against concentration gradient so it needs ATP to do this f.ii.3. There is more sodium on the outside of the cell and more potassium on the inside of the cells f.ii.3.a. Because of sodium potassium exchange pump f.ii.3.b. If you don’t have sodium on the outside of cells, you are dead reason being neurons don’t work; muscle cells don’t work unless there is more sodium outside and more potassium inside. f.ii.4. 1/3 of the body’s energy is used to power this g. Secondary Active Transport g.i. Symporter g.ii. Uses some kind of gradient, to make it go against concentration gradient without using the full potential of ATP. g.iii. Example of this: g.iii.1. SGLT, how you transport glucose to your small intestines g.iii.2. The sodium potassium pump on the basal surface of the cell is used to dump out sodium which in turn is used to get sodium within the cell through the SGLT g.iv. Requires ATP on the basal surface of the cell h. Vesicular Transport
h.i. Endocytosis h.i.1. Receptor mediated endocytosis h.i.1.a. Extracellular molecules will bind with the receptor proteins h.i.2. Pinocytosis h.i.2.a. Cellular drinking h.i.3. Phagocytosis h.i.3.a. Cellular eating, ‘eating everything’ h.ii. Exocytosis h.ii.1. Removal of contents h.ii.2. White bloods do this by phagocytosis and bringing in lysosomes and free radicals will be released to rip apart the bacteria and excrete them through exocytosis. 11. Transmembrane Potential a. More negative on the inside than the outside a.i. One of the reasons why, DNA and RNA have bonds (phosphodiester bonds) that are big time negatively charged bonds. They are located on the inside of the cells b. When a cell is at rest then the transmembrane potential is called Resting Membrane Potential b.i. So if a cell is not being stimulated, then the cells at rest. They have a rested constant values when not excited b.ii. Proteins in the cytoplasm are negatively charged (one of the reasons why
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