Literature review Health Sitkin 2001 believe that organizational behavioural

Literature review health sitkin 2001 believe that

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Literature review Health & Sitkin (2001) believe that organizational behavioural change has its base in individual behaviour and there is a strong link between indi- vidual and organizational behaviour. A change in behaviour can more easily be expected when there is both a positive personal attitude and a positive personal environment. The extent to which behav- iours can be changed by interventions in the per- sonal domain, such as education or information, depends on the strength of the contextual environ- ment (Stern, 1999). Issues in the contextual envi- ronment include public policy and economic vari- ables. Crises have been shown to be an effective driv- er of change in organizations, whether internal or external. These crises are thought to jolt the organ- izations to question their business strategy and in turn their mission, structure, systems or procedures (Bartlett 1983; Tushman et al, 1986). Organiza- tional change not preceded by a crisis may not always be effective or sustainable. Rumelt (1995) states that effective organizational change is pre- vented by distorted perception, dulled motivation, and a failure to come up with a creative response. Reasonable responses are not implemented because of political deadlocks or action disconnects and a crisis is required to overcome these frictions and bring about change. The Cape Town electricity crisis is not unique and other countries have dealt with the conse- quences of their crises primarily by changing the behaviour of consumers to manage demand. The most significant crises and measures are sum- marised in Table 1. Lutzenhiser (1993) finds that energy consump- tion behavioural changes are most likely to occur when policy changes are used in conjunction with information. In the early 1970’s consumers in the USA largely blamed the government and other external institutions for the energy crises of the 1970’s but attitudes had changed by the 1980’s and 1990’s, and a majority of US households had 6 Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Vol 19 No 1 • February 2008 Table 1: Summary of various international electricity crises Source: IEA (2005) Year Country, reason for electricity crisis Measures taken to change behaviour 2001 California, series of simultaneous 200 different programs in all sectors; rebates for using less electricity events than the previous year; public awareness campaigns; extensive daily media reports; rebates for efficient appliance purchases; business partnerships, updated efficiency standards; higher electricity prices to some customers 2001 Brazil, drought Electricity rationing; penalties; media coverage of the shortage; daily status reports; conservation devices distributed to the poor; fuel switching 2001 Sweden, extremely cold day Media broadcasts for conservation and explanations of the problem 2001 New Zealand, drought Intensive media campaign; to and coal shortage. individual goals for all consumers; consumer hotline; website with 2003 information; rebates for successful conservation 2002 Norway, drought and early winter Extensive media campaign; daily reservoir level reports; subsidy scheme for household electricity conservation; fuel switching; shut down some energy intensive factories 2003
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  • Spring '11
  • Mohammad
  • Energy Policy, Energy development, Peak oil

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