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By the part of the plant from which they originated 2

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By the part of the plant from which they originated 2) What compounds/substances affect the texture/toughness of a vegetable? Water content, air spaces, and starches 3) What plant pigments are fat-soluble, which are water-soluble, and what colors are they? Carotenoids and chlorophylls are founds in plastids and are fat soluble, and are mostly yellow-orange and green. Flavonoid pigments are water-soluble and are red-blue, creamy to white, and purplish-red. 4) What are oxalates, where are they found, and what impact to they have on nutrition? Oxalates are compounds found primarily in certain green vegetables like spinach that can bind to the calcium, zinc, or iron in the vegetables and may decrease their absorption into the body 5) What enhances the colors of anthocyanins, anthoxanthins & betalains? Changes in pH; more acid or alkaline 6) What factors should be considered when selecting vegetables? Which is the most important? Ripeness, color, shape, size, uniformity, and freedom from bruises and signs of decay. Most important is ripeness, uniformity, and freedom from bruises/decay 7) What texture, flavor & odor changes occur in cooked vegetables? 4 of 3
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There is usually a reduction of turgor due to water loss in high temperatures. Odors are more pungent when vegetables are cut and/or cooked. Color is usually dulled or changes depending on how the vegetables are cooked. 8) How should vegetables be cooked for nutrient retention? Steaming vegetables is the best way to retain nutrients 9) What factors affect the quality of a salad? Ripeness of the vegetables, whether any of the ingredients are cooked or not, which ingredients are paired 10) Define the following terms from Chapter 13 & 15: a. Chlorophyll: the pigment responsible for green color of plants b. Carotenoids: the pigment responsible for the yellow-orange and sometimes red colors of fruits and vegetables c. Flavonoids: pigments responsible for red-blue, creamy to white, and purplish-red colors of fruits and vegetables d. Vacuoles: sacs in the cell that water is stored in e. turgor: rigid firmness of a plant cell resulting from being filled with water f. cruciferous: group of indole-containing vegetables named for their cross-shaped blossoms g. degorge: to peel and slice vegetables, sprinkle them with salt, and allow them to stand at room temperature until droplets containing bitter substances form on the surface; the moisture is then removed h. specific gravity: the density of a substance compared to another substance i. vinaigrette: salad dressing consisting of only oil, vinegar, and seasoning 5 of 3
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich
  • Enzyme, Vegetable, Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup

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