What now is meant by a mode of argumentation

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What, now, is meant by a \mode of argumentation]? Arguments can be classified in as many ways as there are scholars to classify them. One common way is to describe an argument as logical or not. An argument that takes its information, e.g., warrant, backing, evidence, from traditional rationalist sources, and which, in addition, is or can be put into traditional rationalist form, viz., linguistic, is said to be in the logical mode, realm or form. Note that flogicalg is not being used in the sense of deductive, but in the sense one has in mind when one says of a thought or argument, \That's logical.] Paradigm logical arguments, many of which are not at all deductively correct, are so-called dialectical arguments. (Cf. van Eemeren & Grootendorst, 1983, 1988, for an explication of classically pure dialectical argumentation.) Though this definition of flogicalg is far from precise, we have no difficulty in understanding, at least in paradigmatic situations, when an argument does or does not belong to the logical realm. A similar sense of fbelongingg applies analogously to the other three modes. I.e., when we say of an argument, bit of reasoning, claim, warrant or what have you that it is not logical, we have little difficulty. All I am saying is that when we do so it is natural to place it in another category: likely one of the remaining three. An argument, then, may be said to be wholly or partially in a particular mode when its claim, data, warrant and/or backing is drawn from that particular mode, or if these items are communicated using a form of presentation from a particular mode. The more elements in a particular argument drawn from a particular mode , the deeper entrenched in that mode the argument is. Again, no claim at all is being made for purity of mode, the expectation being that most arguments will have various elements from several modes. Nonetheless, by examining an argument taken in the broad sense of the term, we can identify cases where one mode as opposed to another seems to be predominant. Consider an example.
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M . A . GILBERT MULTI - MODAL ARGUMENTATION PHIL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES V OL 24 N R 2 .6 Example 1. John and Mary are having an argument about their vacation plans. Mary is frustrated by John's repeatedly saying of her suggestions, "We can't afford that." Finally, with some heat, she says, "It doesn't sound like we can afford anything." John's face clouds over; he looks sad and embarrassed. He turns away forlornly, head hanging down. Is John offering an argument, a response to an argument, or performing any argumentative move? I say that he is, and that it is offered in the emotional mode, and that to merely reduce it to linguistic terms is to negate both the method and purpose (conscious or not) of the move . Sometimes, granted, a non-verbal communication can be more or less directly translated into a verbal parallel. A shrug, for instance, may clearly translate to an "I don't know." (Though it too might be ambiguous.) However, in this example, much more is being communicated, and what is being communicated is highly relevant to the argument considered as a whole.
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