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rule out) counting ability as a potential confounding factor in our young sample, participants were instructed to count the number of heartbeats in an auditory sample of a heart beating (not their own) before doing the actual IS task. In addition, to make the task more engaging, participants could listen to their own heartbeat through a stethoscope before commencing the task. Participants completed one practice trial of 20 seconds followed by 6 experimental trials of 25, 35, and 45 seconds (precise order: 25, 35, 45, 35, 45, 25). Each trial was followed by two questions: ‘How many heartbeats did you count?’ and ‘How sure are you on a scale of 1 (not sure at all) to 9 (very sure)?’. The second question explores the metacognitive belief in ones interoceptive abilities (also referred to as interoceptive awareness ). The number of actual heartbeats in each trial was recorded with ECG (see section 2.2.1.). The IS score was calculated as follows, with a higher score indicating better performance :QuestionnairesEmotion regulation.
To assess ER strategies the FEEL-KJ was used [15, 54]. The validity of this questionnaire has already been proven by previous studies [55, 56]. The Dutch version of the FEEL-KJ contains 90 items that assess to what extent children and adolescents habitually use adaptive, maladaptive, and external ER strategies . The scale of adaptive strategies contains the subscales problem-oriented action, cognitive problem-solving, acceptance, forgetting, distraction, reevaluation, and evoking positive mood. Maladaptive strategies are representedby giving up, aggression, withdrawal, self-devaluation, and rumination. Finally, external ER consists of interpersonal strategies to regulate emotions and is represented by the subscalessocial support seeking, expression, and emotional control. While the subscale expression refers to openly displaying how you feel, emotional control concerns to what extent emotions are being concealed from others and is consequently reverse scored. Each ER strategy is represented by two items that are repeated in three different emotion categories (angry, scared, and sad) and participants are asked to rate the frequency of use of each itemon a 5-point scale. The FEEL-KJ questionnaire has a satisfactory overall validity and reliability(Cronbach’s alpha of 0.86 for the entire questionnaire in this sample).Regular exercise and pubertal development.Since both HRV and IS could be influenced by the level of physical fitness [52, 57], participants were asked to report whether they regularly exercise (yes or no) and list sportive activities. In addition, previous research has shown that pubertal development has an impact on cardiac contractility  and HRV [59, 60]. Furthermore, the influence of pubertal development on HRV should be considered, certainly in the context of parental psychopathology . Therefore, a self-rated version (consisting of 9 items for girls and 8 items for boys) of the pubertal development scale (PDS ) was used. The reliability of this scale was adequate (Cronbach’s alpha in this sample of .83 and .75, for boys and girls,