More veterans joined them until the Bonus Army swelled to 15,000. President Hoover acknowledged the veterans’ right to petition but refused to meet with them. When the Senate voted down the bonus bill, veterans outside the Capitol began to grum-ble. Many returned home, but some marchers stayed on. Some squatted in vacant buildings downtown.In late July, Hoover ordered the buildings cleared. The police tried, but when an officer panicked and fired into a crowd, killing two veterans, the city government called in the army. General Douglas MacArthur ignored Hoover’s orders to clear the build-ings but to leave the camps alone. McArthur sent in cavalry, infantry, and tanks to clear the camps. Soon unarmed veterans were running away, pursued by 700 soldiers. The soldiers tear-gassed stragglers and burned the shacks. National press coverage of troops assaulting veterans fur-ther harmed Hoover’s reputation and hounded the president throughout the 1932 campaign. Although Hoover failed to resolve the economic crisis, he did more than any prior president to expand the federal government’s economic role. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was the first federal agency created to stimulate the economy during peacetime. The rout of the Bonus Marchers and the lingering Depression, however, tarnished Hoover’s public image.Evaluating How did Americans react as the Depression continued?Vocabulary1. Explain the significance of: public works, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, relief, foreclose, Bonus Army. Main Ideas 2. IdentifyingWhat two major strategies did President Hoover use to promote eco-nomic recovery? 3. ExplainingWhat did World War I veter-ans do to try to get their service bonuses early? Critical Thinking4.Big IdeasHow did President Hoover’s philosophy of government guide his response to the Depression?5. OrganizingUse a graphic organizer sim-ilar to the one below to list American reactions to the Great Depression.AmericanReactions6. Analyzing VisualsComparingLook at the photo of the Hunger Marchers on page 642. How would you compare their approach and style to protestors today?Writing About History7. Persuasive WritingImagine that you are a World War I veteran in 1931. Write a persuasive letter to your congressperson explaining why you need your bonus now, not in 1945.Section 3
Chapter644Chapter 18The Great Depression BeginsVISUALSUMMARYYou can study anywhere, anytime by downloading quizzes and flashcards to your PDA from glencoe.com.Causes of the Depression Long-Range Causes• Uneven distribution of wealth ensures that many consumers do not have enough income to purchase the goods being produced.• Interest rates are kept too low by the Federal Reserve, which encourages businesses to borrow money and to expand pro-duction beyond market demand.• Overproduction by business eventually floods the market with goods that cannot be sold. Businesses begin laying off workers and shutting down production.