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Those fossils iguanodon because they resembled the

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those fossilsIguanodonbecause they resembled the teeth of a living iguana (odontisGreek for “tooth”) (figure 11.1).11DINOSAUR HUNTERS
194DINOSAUR HUNTERSNeither Buckland nor Mantell knew the fossils they described as dinosaurs, butthey did recognize them as the remains of large, extinct reptiles. Similar fragmentaryfossils of reptiles continued to be found in Britain through the 1830s. These included apartial skeleton of an armored reptile, namedHylaeosaurusby Mantell in 1833, as wellas other fragments that formed the basis for the namesCetiosaurus,Poekilopleuron, andThecodontosaurus.At that time, the foremost authority on fossil reptiles in Britain wasRichard Owen(1804–1892), a comparative anatomist who worked for most of his career at the RoyalCollege of Surgeons and, later, the British Museum of Natural History, both in Lon-don (figure 11.2). In 1842, Owen published a comprehensive review of British fossilFIGURE 11.1These lithographs of teeth ofIguanodonare from GideonMantell’s original article,published in 1825. (FromG. Mantell. 1825. Noticeon theIguanodon, a newlydiscovered fossil reptile, fromthe sandstone of TilgateForest, in Sussex.PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Societyof London115:179–186)FIGURE 11.2Richard Owen, who coinedthe word “Dinosauria” in 1842.(Drawing by M. Tardivel)
DINOSAUR HUNTERS195reptiles in theReport of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. There,Owen coined the termDinosauria, from the Greek rootsdeinos, meaning “terrible”(Owen actually meant “fearfully great”), andsauros, meaning “lizard” or “reptile.”Owen includedMegalosaurus,IguanodonandHylaeosaurusin the Dinosauria, butother British fossil reptiles known to him and subsequently shown to be dinosaurswere excluded. For example, Owen identified the theropodPoekilopleuronas a croco-dile, and the sauropodCetiosaurusas a gigantic marine crocodile. Owen character-ized dinosaurs as having teeth set in bony sockets, large sacra composed of five fusedvertebrae, ribs with two heads, a complex shoulder girdle, long hollow limb bonesand mammal-like feet. In fact, Owen saw several of the features of dinosaurs as moremammal-like than reptile-like, and he even speculated that dinosaurs had hearts andrespiratory systems very similar to those of living mammals.Yet, despite Owen’s comparisons of dinosaurs to mammals, his work and that of hiscontemporaries produced a very reptilian image of the dinosaurs. This image, the firstcomprehensive scientific view of the dinosaurs, emerged in the 1850s through Owen’scollaboration with artist and sculptorBenjamin Waterhouse Hawkins(1807–1894).Between 1852 and 1854, this collaboration resulted in various paintings by Hawkins and,most notably, several life-size sculptures of dinosaurs for the grounds of the Crystal Pal-ace exhibition center at Sydenham, now a London suburb where they still stand (figure11.3). Indeed, as a publicity stunt just before the sculptures were unveiled, Hawkins orga-nized a dinner for 20 scientists held inside the hollow body of the life-sizeIguanodon.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Colle,H
Tags
Cladistics, Dinosaur Science

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