Teaching Social studies in Primary Grades-Philippines History and Government
In 1991 the president's cabinet consisted of the executive secretary (who
controlled the flow of paper and visitors reaching the president), the press secretary, the
cabinet secretary, and the national security adviser, and the secretaries of the following
departments: agrarian reform; agriculture; budget and management; economic
planning;education, culture, and sports; environment and natural resources; finance;
foreign affairs; health;interior and local governments; justice; labor and employment;
national defense;public works and highways; science and technology;social welfare and
development; tourism; trade and industry;and transportation and communications.
Cabinet members directed a vast bureaucracy--2.6 million Filipinos were on the
government payroll in 1988.
Legislature of the Philippines
Legislature: The Philippines Congress is made up of 287-seat House of
Representatives (lower chamber) and a 24-seat Senate (upper chamber).The Senate has a
lot of power and has traditionally been dominated by the elite landowning families.
Senators can serve two consecutive six-year terms They are chosen through a national
rather than local vote and thus are expected to have a national vision and not be tied
down by local interests. Elections for 12 Senators are held every three years. The House
of Representatives is made up of Congressmen and women elected from districts. They
can serve up to three three-year terms and also are often members of the landowning