Honey cells may be somewhat deeper and upward sloping when made in a natural nest Pollen is stored in worker cells ¾ full with a honey capping Queen cells hang vertically and are peanut shaped Queen cells developed during colony queen replacement behaviours start as a queen cup; they are cup like found in the lower region of the comb, with the open portion hanging vertically downward; they are more abundant in the spring and during population buildup than in the winter Bees place extra pieces of comb between the parallel combs of beeswax and extend comb from top and bottom bars of the frames; burr and brace comb serve to strengthen and prevent the comb from moving (used mostly to store honey) There are often unusual sized and shaped transition cells in beeswax comb, sometimes filled with wax (found near top or at passenger holes to get from worker to drone cells) Natural combs may not be perfectly parallel, they are oriented relative to magnetic fields When building their comb bees leave approximately 3/8 of an inch, the height of a bee between combs, called bee space Bee space was a rapid development in bee keeping, although the size of the bombs may or may not be important to the bees Nest organization
Man made hives How do bees tell the difference? Queens and workers can tell cells by larger drone and smaller worker cells as well as orientation, vertical (queen), horizontal (worker/drone) as well as by the smell The queen measures cells with leg, if larger than 4mm she lays an unfertilized egg in the drone cell; only fertilized eggs go into the smaller worker cells; queen marks eggs with pheromone Workers tell the difference between cells by the odour; laying workers, which are workers that lay eggs when a queen is not present prefer drone cells over worker cells for their eggs Beeswax comb is constantly recycled, when constructed, it consists of newly secreted beeswax Experiments have shown that survival of eggs and larvae is higher in cells that have been previously used compared to survival in new cells Stimulatory effect of comb and brood Empty comb whether new or previously used stimulates bees to store more honey, colonies given more empty beeswax store 30% more honey than one given less beeswax Passing a stream of air over beeswax comb increases hoarding Combs containing brood is the major reason for inhibition of worker ovary development; brood also stimulates pollen collection by adult foragers Removal of both brood and an egg laying queen doubles the decrease, showing how critically important it is to have an expanding brood area and healthy queen in colonies being used in pollination of crops; giving colonies brood stimulates a colony to increase its pollen-collection behaviour Pages 57-59 Pages 87-89 Week 4: Pages 134-145, 115-117, 127-131 Week 5: Pages 119-126 Swarming Swarming is natural in colony reproduction, the behaviour is complex To public it may be terrifying but a swarm is gentle and can usually be handled with ease
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- Fall '12
- Beekeeping, Honey bee, bees, The Queen, honey bees, Worker Bees