Impairs brain activity associated with mathematical

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Impairs brain activity associated with mathematical processing Increase activity in areas associated with emotion processing Self-monitoring Worrying about making mistakes disrupts focused attention Suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions
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Effort required to regulate one’s thinking takes energy Disrupts working memory o Positive stereotypes may enhance performance (Shih, Pittinsky & Ambady, 1999) When Asian American females were asked biographical questions that reminded them of their gender identity before taking a math test Their performance plunged compared with a control group When similarly reminded of their Asian identity Their performance rose - Do stereotypes bias judgment of individuals? o People often evaluate individuals more positively than the groups they compose (Miller & Felicio, 1990) o Once someone knows a person Stereotypes may have minimal impact on judgments about that person o Locksely, Bodgida, Brekke (1981) Gave University of Minnesota students anecdotal information about recent incidents in the life of Nancy In a supported transcript of a telephone conversation Nancy told a friend how she responded to three different situations Some of the students read transcripts portraying Nancy responding assertively Others read a report of passive responses Other students received the same information Except that the person was named Paul instead of Nancy A day later the students predicted how Nancy or Paul would respond to other situations Expectations of the person’s assertiveness were influenced solely by what the students had learned about that individual the day before Even their judgments of masculinity and femininity were unaffected by knowing the person’s gender Gender stereotypes had been left on the shelf The students evaluated Nancy and Paul as individuals o Given General (base-rate) information about a group and Trivial but vivid information about a particular group member The vivid information usually overwhelms the effect of the general information Especially so when the person does not fit our image of the typical group member (Fein & Hilton, 1992)
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o People often believe such stereotypes Yet ignore them when given personalized, anecdotal information o Gender stereotypes Are strong Yet have little effect on people’s judgments of work attributed to a man or a woman o Strong stereotypes matter Strong and seemingly relevant stereotypes do color our judgments of individuals (Krueger & Rothbart, 1988) Had students estimate the heights of individually pictured men and women (Nelson, Biernat & Manis, 1990) Judged the individual men as taller than the women Even when their heights were equal Even when they were told that sex did not predict height in this sample Even when they were offered cash rewards for accuracy Follow-up study (Nelson, Acker & Manis, 1996) Showed University of Michigan students photos of other students from the university’s engineering and nursing schools, along with descriptions of each student’s interests
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