Decisions by agencies other than the courts must be

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Decisions by agencies other than the courts must be included 2. Convictability rather than conviction 3. Avoidance of conviction due to pressure on the system should not disqualify one as criminal 4. Persons who are accessory to crime should be include as white-collar criminals
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A sample of WCCs Misrepresentation in financial statements Stock market manipulation False advertising Misapplication of funds Tax evasion/fraud Misapplication of funds in receiverships Commercial bribery Direct or indirect bribery of public officials Anti-trust violations Embezzlement Short weights and measures Misgrading of commodities
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White Collar Crime (1949) Ten years later, Sutherland published his book White Collar Crime (1949) Studied the offenses of the 70 largest nonfinancial corporations 980 total decisions, average 14 each Characterized habitual criminal recidivist Censored by the publisher out of fear of reprisal (ironically) finally released uncut in 1983
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White Collar Crime (1949) cont. In the text, he also revised his definition. A white-collar crime is "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” (Sutherland, 1949 p.9; 1987 p. 7) Sutherland died soon after publication, making this his final statement of the definition
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Criticisms of Sutherland’s Text Defined WCC as the misdeeds of business people, yet studied corporations Characterized WC offenders as people of high social class, in positions of power, yet included case study from a student working in a shoe store Merged political ideology (populism) with social science Scientific Neutrality?
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Criticisms of Sutherland’s Definition(s) Applied the label “crime” to violations of civil and administrative statutes. The language was vague and undefined The crimes it refers to are not limited to those people in particular social standing or occupational position Infers that the violations occurred as part of one’s occupation
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Failure, By Definition Despite his attempt, debate about what constitutes WCC is nearly as old as the concept itself. Primarily due to imprecision, operationalization Currently, there is no single accepted definition, although some typologies have become more accepted than others Clinard and Quinney (1973)
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Elements to consider when constructing a definition of WCC Who the offender is Occupational status Violation of trust Which laws were violated Respectability Victim(s) Social Consequences The Act Social class Victim-Offender relationship The motivation
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Toward a Universal Definition Most criminologists agree that WCC: Occurs during course of a legitimate occupation Motivated by economic gain or occupational success Not characterized by direct , intentional violence Despite these central agreements, there may be as many definitions as there are criminologists who study it.
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Legacy
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  • Spring '14
  • AidaY.Hass
  • White-collar crime, Edwin H. Sutherland

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