Arora and cason 1996 found that customer contact

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Arora and Cason ( 1996 ) found that customer contact, measured by the level of advertising expenditures, is a signi fi cant predictor of participation in pollution preventions programs. In a sense, clothing fi rms seem to have adopted more comprehensive CSR practices than textile manufactures. However, Abreu et al. ( 2012 ) found that textile manufacturing fi rms in Brazil and China tend to have more complete CSR practices in place than clothing fi rms. This seems to be because in these countries, manufacturers face greater pressure from regulatory agencies while consumers are not active stakeholders. In the same study, fi rms of larger size (as Perspectives, Drivers, and a Roadmap for Corporate 5
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measured by the number of employees) were found to have more complete CSR practices than smaller ones. Henriques and Sardoky ( 1996 ) con fi rmed that size can in fl uence a fi rm s visi- bility and hence general expectations of corporate social performance. Arag ó n- Correa et al. ( 2008 ) also concluded that environmental risks and stakeholder pressures increase in relation to size. The larger the fi rm, the more susceptible it may be to public scrutiny. Castelo Branco and Rodrigues ( 2008 ) argued that larger companies disclose more information related to CSR than smaller ones. Large companies need to consider social responsibility activities and disclosure as a way of enhancing corporate reputation. Gonz á lez-Benito and Gonz á lez-Benito ( 2010 ) added that large fi rms are more inclined to adopt CSR practices, mainly related to environmental issues. Engaging in voluntary environmental programs and social behavior has a positive relationship with size. Firm size is an indicator of the resources available to the fi rm (Arora and Cason 1995 ; Christmann and Taylor 2001 ). From a CSR perspective, fi rm size can be viewed as a double-edged sword: It increases social and environmental demands from stakeholders, but it is also indicative of the availability of resources to respond to those demands. 2.3 Country In fl uence and Institutional Dynamics on CSR Practices Abreu et al. ( 2012 ) found that fi rms having the same size and position in the value chain can have different approaches in terms of CSR, depending on the country in which they operate. A variety of institutional conditions of the country in fl uence corporate decisions to act in socially responsible ways. Such behavior is more likely to occur to the extent that fi rms are monitored by strong regulatory agencies, the existence of collective industrial self-regulation, and the institutional capacity of NGOs, media, and the general public. These actors can be engaged in dialogue and create pressure on fi rms (Campbell 2007 ). Institutional dynamics and organizations are interrelated. Organizations neither react directly to all pressures dictated by the organizational fi eld, nor do they act completely autonomously without the in fl uence of external pressure (Hoffman 2001 ). Baughn et al. ( 2007 ) pointed out that economic, political and social factors in fl uence the regulatory context, normative expectations, attitudes, and shared know-how underpinning CSR. These factors have an important impact on the
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  • Corporate social responsibility, CSR Practices

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