The slave trade’s impact today MAR Morocco 0 RWA Rwanda 0 0 0 0 0 STP S˜ao Tom´e & Principe 0 0 0 0 0 SWZ Swaziland 0 0 0 0 0 SYC Seychelles 0 0 0 0 0 TUN Tunisia 0 0 0 0 0 F IGURE III Relationship between Log Slave Exports Normalized by Land Area, ln(exports/area), and Log Real Per Capita GDP in 2000, ln y between 1400 and 1900 normalized by land area and the natural log of per capita GDP in 2000. 7 As shown in the figure, a negative 7. Because the natural log of zero is undefined, I take the natural log of 0.1. As I show in the Appendix, the results are robust to the omission of these zero-export countries. Societies that exported more slaves are poorer today. Economics of Poverty The Big Picture Marx – January 29, 2019 23 / 1
Determinants of world poverty Institutions: Slave Trade The slave trade’s impact today Richer societies in 1400 exported more slaves, leading to a “reversal of fortune”... a theme we will encounter later on. Economics of Poverty The Big Picture Marx – January 29, 2019 24 / 1
Determinants of world poverty Institutions: Slave Trade The slave trade’s impact today THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AFRICA’S SLAVE TRADES 167 F IGURE VIII Paths of Economic Development Since 1950 A corollary of Herbst’s argument is that the impact of the slave trades may have been felt most strongly after colonial inde- pendence. This is because this is when precolonial political struc- tures suddenly increased in importance, as they became central determinants of the success of the newly formed state. Using Figure VIII, I examine whether the evolution of incomes since 1950 is consistent with this hypothesis. The figure shows average per capita GDP between 1950 and 2000 for two groups of African countries. 20 One group consists of the 26 countries with the low- est measures of ln(exports/area), and the other is the 26 countries with the highest measures of ln(exports/area). As shown in the fig- What do these relationships say? Do you find this persuasive? What else might you want to check? Economics of Poverty The Big Picture Marx – January 29, 2019 25 / 1
Determinants of world poverty Institutions: Slave Trade Other controls Nunn also “controls” for many of the other factors that might be correlated with the slave trade, e.g. Distance from equator Temperature and precipitation Legal origins Which colonizer Natural resources In practice, what does this mean? He also “instruments” for the number of people deported using distance to major ports as his instrument. Again, we will encounter this strategy later on. Economics of Poverty The Big Picture Marx – January 29, 2019 26 / 1
Determinants of world poverty Institutions: Colonization Legacies of Colonization After the slave trade, one major episode that shaped countries’ institutions is colonization Many people have argued that colonization was bad for development. Why might this be? Now former colonies are independent. Why might slave trade and colonialism still be bad today?
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