I thank god for making me a man simply but delaney

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"I thank god for making me a man simply; but Delaney always thanks him for making him a black man." Douglass editorial, entitled LEARN TRADES OR STARVE, on April 4, 1853 "White men are becoming house-servants, cooks and stewards on vessels—at hotels.—They are becoming porters, stevedores, wood-sawyers, hod-carriers, brick-makers, white-washers, and barbers, so that the blacks can scarcely find the means of subsistence—a few years ago, and a white barber would have been a curiosity—now their poles stand on every street. Formerly blacks were almost the exclusive coachmen in wealthy families; this is no longer. . . . The readiness and ease with which they adapt themselves to these conditions ought not to be lost sight of by colored people. . . . The meaning of this is very important, and we should learn from it. We are taught our insecurity by it. Without the means of living, life is a curse, and leaves us at the mercy of the oppressor to become his debased slaves. Now, colored men, what do you mean to do, for you must do something. The American Colonization Society tells you to go to Liberia. Mr. Henry Bibbs tells you to go to Canada. Others tell you to go to school. We tell you to go to work; and to work you must go or die." This was much easier said than done. Wherever blacks lived, whites wanted them to go away. Time and again, whites herded blacks into groups and directed them to the city limits. Time and again, just arrived immigrants cracked their skulls and burnt their homes and churches. The solution to the "Negro Problem" was the "Indian Solution." Douglass to crowd in New York (August 4, 1857)
"The whole of the progress of human liberty shows that all concessions yet made to her august claims have been born of earnest struggle. . . . If there is no struggle there is no progress. Those who profess to favor freedom and yet deprecate agitation are men who want crops without ploughing up the ground, who want rain without thunder and lightning. . . . The struggle may be a moral one or it may be a physical one, or it may be both moral and physical. Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will. Find out just what any people will quietly submit to and you have found the exact measure of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them, and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress. Negroes will be hunted at the North and held and flogged at the South so long as they submit to those devilish outrages and make no resistance, either moral or physical. Men may not get all the pay in this world, but they most certainly pay for all they get. If we ever get free from the oppressions and wrongs heaped upon us, we must pay for their removal. We must do this by labor, by suffering, by sacrifice, and, if needs be, by our lives and the lives of others." Douglass's July 4, 1860 delivery to a crowd in Rochester, New York "What, to the American slave, is your fourth of July? I answer: a day that reveals to him,

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