21 the impact on the individual consumer might be

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21 The impact on the individual consumer might be limited now, but society as a whole will need to start dealing with the negative consequences of making their ‘dumb’ devices ‘smart’. Ransomware. A specific malware called Ransomware has already claimed many victims in the last two years. This malware entirely locks your computer or device and will only reverse it in exchange for payment. More recently, this has evolved into nastier cryptoware, used to take all personal data hostage (while making the same demand for ransom). It is expected to evolve into mobile cryptoware soon. One report indicates ransomware attacks have grown 500% since 2013. 22
36 ASSESSING CYBER SECURITY 2.5 Targets 2.5.1 Location of targets Attacks are not evenly dispersed across the globe. As we have seen in section 2.3.2, some countries are more prolific than others in hosting cyber attacks. Similarly, some countries host more attractive targets to be attacked. It should be noted that the results in the figure below may be skewed because of the many number of US data attacks that the reports rely on. It may well be that the US and the UK host many of the victims in cyber space, but a more precise assessment would be needed for specific types of attacks (e.g., espionage, cyber crime) to create a more insightful picture. FIGURE 20 SHARE OF TOTAL ATTACKS ON TARGETS IN EACH COUNTRY IN 2013, ACCORDING TO HACKMAGEDDON.ORG (2014) AND TRUSTWAVE (2014) US Hackmageddon (all attacks) Trustwave (data breach) 0 10 20 30 40 60 50 0 10 20 30 40 60 50 Other Belgium Ireland New Zealand Mauritius Hong Kong Canada N/A France Japan Australia Pakistan Turkey India UK
HCSS REPORT 37 Only a few other reports provide an assessment of attacks per country – and most are rather vague. One report notes that almost half of all attacks use IP addresses in the US. 23 It also provides a map showing number of incidents, but it does not provide the raw scores, nor any further explanation of the color coding. The report notes that about half of all attacks were aimed at US actors. But apart from that, it shows considerable differences with the Hackmageddon.org and Trustwave reports. Note that the UK is classified as experiencing few attacks, while Sweden is singled out as a country experiencing a high number of attacks. FIGURE 21 MAP SHOWING CYBER INCIDENTS PER COUNTRY ACCORDING TO NTT IN 2013. HIGHEST RANKED COUNTRIES ARE AUSTRALIA, US, FRANCE, SWEDEN, CHINA. THESE ARE FOLLOWED BY CANADA, INDIA, RUSSIA, NORWAY, GERMANY, THE NETHERLANDS, TURKEY, UKRAINE, MYANMAR, JAPAN, AND ESTONIA. (NTT, 2014) 2.5.2 Sectors under attack Of all sectors, the government and the financial services stand out as main targets (see Figure 22). The five reports that investigate attacks per sector differ substantially in the classification of sectors and their assessments of the attacks conducted.
38 ASSESSING CYBER SECURITY FIGURE 22 CYBER ATTACKS PER SECTOR IN 2013 (VERIZON, 2014; IBM, 2014; HACKMAGEDDON.ORG, 2014; MCAFEE, 2013) AND 2014 (UK-CERT, 2014) Manufacturing Retail Information and communication Other Online services Organization Finance Health Law Enforcement News

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