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Typically professional communicators
Less immediate feedback (something Mass comm has in common with Public comm)Ex: You find out if your TV show is a hit by the ratings that come AFTER the show is finished airingSome topics studied:Effects of TV on behavior/attitudesEx: Effects of violence on TV towards children Role of media in society*Key point: Communication happens at multiple contextual levels!*Conceptualizing Communication (continued) with ModelsA. Modeling CommunicationWhat is a model?Abstract representation of a "real thing"Includes major elements and focuses on certain characteristicsWhy model communication?To help visualize and organize info clearly (difference between giving directions and actually giving a person a map to be able to see everything visually)To help make predictions about behaviorTo suggest newideas for understanding comm.A good model ideally should include:Primary Componentsof comm.Important Characteristicsof commHow everything fits togetherBut, most models limittheir focus
Is this a good model of communication?S > M > RSOURCE > MESSAGE > RECEIVERNo, because it doesn't show everything. It makes it seem like it is a one way communication. Etc etc (many more reasons.____________________________________________________________________Conceptualizing Communication (continued)A. Primary Componentsof CommunicationPeople (participants)sources and receiversMessages (symbols)Channel / Medium (how do the messages get there? Through a channel / medium)Noise (Radio break-up sound, No-reception phone call; AKA interference)Can included psychological kinds of noises FeedbackMessages are not just sent but received; we are receiving feedback to the messages we sendContext / settingB, Important Characteristicsof Communication1. Comm as symbolicactivity
symbols(verbal/non-verbal) are used to exchange meaningMeaning is not actually in the symbol itself, but in people's understandingFIX PARAGRAPH ADJUSTMENTS FROM HEREMeaning is within us and how we take the message.2. Comm as a Systematic and Cognitive ProcessEncoding Taking an idea and translating it into a symbol formDecodingTaking a simple message and translating itTransmittingFace to face interaction3. Comm as a TransactionalactivityTransaction: An exchangeCommunication is a sequence of exchangesInteractions have interdependenceWithin the interaction both are dependent on each other to complete the interaction. One persons response does not make any sense without the other person's first message (or else the first person would be responding to nothing)Process is irreversibleThe sequence of exchanges is always moving forward (there is no rewind button where you can take back what you say)*Reader work*Linear Models (pg 22)S > M > R
-This model is missing many things. It is very limited.