headed by a functional specialist—a sales manager, advertising manager, marketing research manager, customer-service manager, or new-product manager. A company that sells across the country or internationally often uses a geographic organization. Its sales and marketing people are assigned to specific countries, regions, and districts. Geographic organization allows salespeople to settle into a territory, get to know their customers, and work with a minimum of travel time and cost. Companies with many very different products or brands often create a product management organization. Using this approach, a product manager develops and implements a complete strategy and marketing program for a specific product or brand.For companies that sell one product line to many different types of markets and customers that have different needs and preferences, a market or customer management organization might be best. A marketmanagement organization is similar to the product management organization. Market managers are responsible for developing marketing strategies and plans for their specific markets or customers. This system’s main advantage is that the company is organized aroundthe needs of specific customer segments. Many companies develop special organizations to manage their relationships with large customers. For example, companies such as Procter & Gamble and Black & Decker have large teams, or even whole divisions, set up to serve large customers such as Walmart, Safeway, or Home Depot.Large companies that produce many different products flowing into many different geographic and customer markets usually employ somecombination of the functional, geographic, product, and market organization forms.Marketing organization has become an increasingly important issue in recent years. More and more, companies are shifting their brand management focus toward customer management—moving away frommanaging only product or brand profitability and toward managing customer profitability and customer equity. They think of themselves not as managing portfolios of brands but as managing portfolios of customers. And rather than managing the fortunes of a brand, they seethemselves as managing customer–brand engagement, experiences, and relationships.
Marketing ControlBecause many surprises occur during the implementation of marketingplans, marketers must practise constant marketing control—the process of measuring and evaluating the results of marketing strategies and plans and taking corrective action to ensure that objectives are attained. Marketing control involves four steps. Management first sets specific marketing goals. It then measures its performance in the marketplace and evaluates the causes of any differences between expected and actual performance. Finally, management takes corrective action to close the gaps between its goals and its performance. This may require changing the action programs or even changing the goals.