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Arrival of missionaries made marriage a la facon de la pays unacceptable -White woman symbolizing the shift from fur trade to settlement Changes in mid 19th century -Idea of Canadian expansion into the west -White women come to the prairies -Shift from fur trade to the settlement era -Invalidation of mixed marriages -By 1880s, many Indigenous women were left by their husbands -Women and their children excluded from positions of economic & social prestige -1886 ruling Jones vs Fraser Frances Simpson gets married (Youtube Video) Revision 1850s -Henry Youle Hind expedition -Palliser’s Triangle -The west as arable land -Civilization over savagery -The west as the east’s inheritance -Changing ideas about the agricultural potential of the west: from barren cold wilderness to fertile garden -Two scientific expeditions (Henry Youle Hind & John Palliser – Palliser’s Triangle Confederation -Canada West (part of present day Ontario), Canada East (part of present day Quebec), Nova Scotia & New Brunswick – 1867 form Canada -With Confederation, Canada negotiates with Britain to takeover Rupert’s Land -1869 -Three way deal: HBC surrenders control of the North West to British Government who then transferred it to Canada -British government paid £300 000 to the HBC -No consultation with the local inhabitants
Metis Red River Resistance 1869 -Red River tradition of long narrow river farm lots -New square survey system -Oct. 11, survey crew barred when they tried to run a line across the farm of Andre Nault -William McDougall, first Lieutenant-Governor -Barred from the territory until Ottawa negotiated guarantees -Nov. 2 1869 armed men turned McDougall back at the American border & residents, led by Louis Riel, seized Fort Garry from the HBC, and took control of Red River -Métis ascendancy challenged by John Schultz, leader of a small group of Canadian expansionists -Métis call for provisional government chosen by the entire community -Attempt to impose Canadian authority led to arrests and jailing of Canadians in the cells at Fort Garry -Riel proclaims a provisional government -Meanwhile, Métis reps go Ottawa, negotiations begin -Canadians plan to free prisoners held at Fort Garry -Meanwhile, the prisoners had been released but the armed men that came to free them were caught & jailed -Thomas Scott refused to accept his imprisonment: an opponent of the provisional government, he assaulted & verbally abused his guards -Scott was tried for resistance and aim to overthrow the Provisional Government. He was sentenced and executed -Scott becomes of symbol – martyr (Orange Order member); Métis resistance at Red River trying to deny Protestant Ontario its rightful heritage to the west -Outcome of negotiations -