May cause discomfort motivate person to continue drug

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May cause discomfort & motivate person to continue drug usage to reduce them Classical cues motivate ongoing operant behavior – rat more likely to press lever if cues are present o Organisms w/ work harder to avoid situations that lead to trauma in the presence of negative cues o Ex – rat will work much hard for food in the presence of food associated cues
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Blocking – finding that no conditioning occurs to a stimulus if combined w/ previously conditioned stimulus o Information, surprise value, or prediction error is important in conditioning o Ex – turn on a light & ring a bell before presenting food, dog doesn’t learn association btwn light & food Conditioned response will only occur if a bell is rung – bell “block” conditioning of light Prediction error – chance that condition stimulus won’t lead to expected outcome o Ex – bell produces prediction error that dog has to learn if both light and bell and needed to receive food o Learning process takes most valid predictors and ignores less useful predictors Classical conditioning is strongest if CS and US are intense or salient & if CS and US are relatively new o Humans are naturally inclined to associate an illness w/ flavor rather than light or tone o Preparedness – organism’s evolutionary history makes it easy to learn a particular association Extinction – dec in strength of learned behavior when CS is presented w/o US or when behavior isn’t reinforced o Response to CS can be eliminated if CS is presented repeatedly w/o US Ex – salivation would stop if you kept ringing a bell but never gave the dog food o Extinction is basis for many therapies to eliminate maladaptive or unwanted behavior Extinction does not necessarily destroy the original learning o Spontaneous recovery – recovery of extinguished response that occurs w/ time after extinction o Exposure to CS after not being exposed to it for a while can elicit CR again Renewal effect – recovery of extinguished response that occurs when context is changed after extinction o Strong when change of context involves return to context where conditioning originally occurred o Context – stimuli that are in the background whenever learning occurs
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