The subsequent discovery of other rich and profitable

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The subsequent discovery of other rich and profitable veins of gold eventually led to the creation of the largest urban conglomeration in sub-Saharan Africa . Menelik II emperor of Ethiopia from 1889-1913, works to unify empire and imports thousands of modern firearms, which in conjunction with professionalizing his army, allow him to resist Italian invasion in the late 19 th century; military technology and political savvy helps Menelik defeat the Italians at the final Battle of Adowa in 1896 – *only African nation to successfully resist imperial encroachment during “Scramble,” shows importance of military modernization Indirect rule
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form of governance associated with British rule in colonial Africa; system advanced by Lord Frederick Lugard , leading British colonial expert during interwar years and governor-general of Nigeria, author of The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa ; system based on British experience in colonial India; involves the incorporation of African leaders/chiefs into governing process – utilizing existing African authorities in colonial administration (emphasis on “traditional” elites), disloyal leaders are deposed/loyal leaders are rewarded, results in great variance from colony to colony; *one of two major views on how to “keep the peace” in the colonies *Kenyatta – doesn’t work because appointed chiefs do not represent people, they represent GB interests Assimilation policy associated with French system of “direct rule;” top-down political management which includes a group of European officials on top and a group of W. Africans trained to carry out government policies beneath them; encourages and incentivizes African assimilation into French culture; creates uniformity throughout the French colonies and based on a sense of cultural superiority *fosters creation of negritude movement and granting of Fr. citizenship to assimilated/educated Africans (African representatives in French parliament) Kimberly a. Site of the first diamond fields in South Africa. b. Located in a contested area: annexed by Britain in 1871 c. Site of the first “compound system” c.i. Working class housing- organized labor racial division, exploitation and insurance of constant supply drew in the rural workforce c.ii. Cash became the main means of trade c.iii. Unmanageable labour ie workers demanding higher wages, and stealing first pass laws req. registration for working the mines 1872 c.iv. By 1888, in a series of claim purchases and agreements, the largest shares of the mines were bought by Cecil Rhodes (De Beers Mining Company) : this venture began c.v. October 1899: in the Second Anglo-Boer War Kimberly was a site of heavy fighting between the Brits and the Boers (due to the value of the diamond fields and their contested location Mau mau
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  • Fall '12
  • LeeCassanelli

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