Satisfaction academically then the number of hours

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satisfaction academically, then the number of hours will need to increase to 20 or 25 hours or even more. And if you tend to study in small time chunks (e.g., 15 minutes with the textbook here and there, punctuated by interruptions or other work), you must also devote more than twice the number of hours because you lose efficiency in repeatedly starting and stopping your studying. The 2X rule for study is intended to provide you with the opportunity to overlearn your course materials to the point where, when you are taking a multiple-choice exam, you have little or no problem spotting the correct choice among a number of distractor choices. If you routinely experience the frustration of feeling that the choices for an answer are "too close to one another," one likely reason is that you have not processed the material deeply enough - that is, you have not overlearned it - to be able to ignore the distractor choices efficiently and zoom in quickly on the correct answer. The less time you spend studying and the less quality effort you put into the time that you do study, unfortunately the more challenging it will be for you to disregard distractor choices and find the correct answer on a multiple-choice test. 3. Aim for Increased Depth-of-Processing : One of the most influential findings in cognitive psychology pertains to the principle of depth-of-processing , which states that the more deeply to-be-learned information is processed mentally, the better the retention and recollection of that material will be. For example, two individuals with equivalent academic abilities can read the same textbook chapter and have very different retention of that material depending on the amount of effort they expended to actively make connections to previously read material as they read through the chapter. In Psychology 490, we discuss a particularly useful process for strengthening working and long-term memories, called elaborative rehearsal , in which a person actively attempts to make meaningful connections between each new piece of information and previously learned material. If you tend to have the habit of quickly reading a chapter to get to the end as soon as possible and if you do not engage in elaborative rehearsal, you are much more likely to have your working and long-term memory impaired by what is called interference , in which related, but somewhat different memories interfere with each other, making it that much harder to retrieve each memory individually (think "tip of the tongue" phenomenon, where you almost know the answer, but just can't quite retrieve it). Elaborative rehearsal, when done properly, gives you multiple pathways to retrieve information from memory and thereby will give you an increased flexibility in trying to recall information when answering a test question under pressure. If you often find yourself struggling to recall information (e.g., "I know I reviewed this material and I'm sure I know it, but I just can't recall right now the exact term I'm looking at"), there is a strong likelihood that you can improve your recall ability by building in greater elaborative rehearsal strategies when studying. For example, as you read each key term 2
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in a chapter, turn back one or more pages and try to weave a narrative that connects the term you just read about with ones that appeared on previous pages. Actively make the
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