# Each resistor is 30ωv the volt box is used together

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Each resistor is 30Ω/V. The volt box is used together with a potentiometer with range 1.8V as shown in Figure 1.7. Figure 1.7

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Volt box Solution k V V R V V V V k V V R V V V V V V R V V V V V V R V V V V V V R R R R R 5 . 1 1500 / 30 50 50 50 100 2 . 1 1200 / 30 40 40 10 50 150 / 30 5 5 5 10 96 / 30 2 . 3 2 . 3 5 . 1 5 54 / 30 8 . 1 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2
Noise - Introduction Electrical noise – any undesirable electrical energy that falls within the passband of the signal. Figure 1.8 shows the effect that noise has on an electrical signal. The grassy-looking squiggles superimposed on the sine wave are electrical noise, which contains a multitude of frequencies and amplitudes that can interfere with the quality of the signal.

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Noise - Introduction Figure 1.8: Effects of noise on a signal Signal without noise Signal with noise
Noise - Introduction Can be divided into 2 general categories: Correlated noise Uncorrelated noise Correlation implies a relationship between the signal and the noise. Correlated noise exist only when a signal is present. Uncorrelated noise present all the time whether there is a signal or not.

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Correlated Noise A form of internal noise – present only when there is a signal ( no signal, no noise! ) Produced by nonlinear amplification and includes harmonic and intermodulation distortion ( hence nonlinear distortion ).
Correlated Noise Harmonic distortion Occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are produced through nonlinear amplification. Harmonics are integer multiples of the original signal. The original signal is the first harmonic called fundamental frequency. (2x fund. freq = 2 nd harmonic, 3x fund. freq = 3 rd harmonic,etc) Also called Amplitude distortion

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Correlated Noise Intermodulation distortion Generation of unwanted sum and difference frequencies produced when 2 or more signals mix in a nonlinear device. Sum and difference frequencies are called cross product . Unwanted cross product frequencies can interfere with the information signals.
Uncorrelated Noise Can be subdivided into 2 general categories: External – generated outside device or circuit Internal – generated within a device or circuit

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Uncorrelated Noise External Internal Atmospheric Thermal Extraterrestrial Shot Solar Transient time Cosmic Man-made Impulse interference
Uncorrelated Noise - External Atmospheric noise Electrical disturbances that originate within Earth’s atmosphere. Commonly called static electricity Eg. sputtering, crackling often heard from a speaker when there is no signal present.

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Uncorrelated Noise - External Extraterristrial noise Originate from outside Earth’s atmosphere Also called deep-space noise Divided into 2: Solar noise - Generated directly from the sun’s heat Cosmic noise – continuously distributed throughout the galaxies. Noise intensity is relatively small
• Fall '17
• puan nor azilah binti ahmad
• Potentiometer Circuit

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