ABGs can be obtained by an arterial puncture or through an arterial line

Abgs can be obtained by an arterial puncture or

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ABGs can be obtained by an arterial puncture or through an arterial line. Interpretation of ABGs: o Blood pH levels less than 7.35 reflect acidosis, a pH level greater than 7.45 reflect alkalosis. ABG Measure Expected Reference Range pH 7.35 to 7.45 PaO 2 80 to 100 mm Hg PaCO 2 35 to 45 mm Hg HCO 3 21 to 28 mEq/L SaO 2 95% to 100% Bronchoscopy Permits visualization of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi though either a flexible fiber-optic or rigid bronchoscope. o Indicated for visualization of abnormalities such as tumors, inflammation, and strictures. o Biopsy of suspicious lung tissue Nursing Care: o Maintain patient at NPO 4 to 8 hours prior o Position in sitting or supine position. o Monitor vitals o Post procedure: Monitor vitals and asses LOC and gag reflex Complications can include: o Laryngospasm which is uncontrolled muscle contractions of the laryngeal cords that impede the ability to inhale. o Pneumothorax which can occur following a rigid bronchoscopy. o Aspiration can occur if the patient chokes n oral or gastric secretions. Thoracentesis The surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with a large-bore needle. It is performed to obtain specimens for diagnostic evaluation, instill medication into the pleural space, and remove fluid (effusion) or air from the pleural space for therapeutic relief of pleural pressure. o Diagnoses: Heart Failure, Cirrhosis, Nephritic Syndrome, Hypoproteinemia Empyema Exudates (inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic conditions) Pneumonia o Amount of fluid removed is limited to 1 Liter at a time to prevent re-expansion pulmonary edema. Mediastinal Shift
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Shift of thoracic structures to one side of the body o Monitor vitals o Auscultate lungs for a decrease in or absence of breath sounds Pneumothorax A collapsed lung, can occur due to injury to the lung during the procedure. o Monitor for manifestations o Educate on indications
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