Person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing

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Person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing Understanding APD Biological influences Having a twin puts you more at risk Biopsychosocial Influences Violent crimes have gone up
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How much environment influences? Therapy Biomedical Physically changes the brain’s function, alters chemistry, circuits Types: Drug Therapies Antipsychotic Dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli Ex. Thorozine Side effects: tardive dyskinesia Antianxiety Used to control anxiety and agitation Ex. Xanax, Ativan Antidepressant Used to treat depression Ex. Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil Mood Stabilizers Flattens mood Ex. Lithium Brain Stimulation Therapies Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Involves passing an electrical current through a person’s brain in order to induce a  seizure
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Works instantly and can cause damage Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) Expose a particular brain structure to a burst of high intensity magnetic field Psychosurgery Removes or destroys brain tissue Lobotomy Disconnects frontal lobe and areas important to emotion Psychotherapy Approaches to therapy that focus on psychological factors Types: Psychoanalysis Aim: uncover unconscious motives that underlie psychological problems Method: free association (lay down and say whatever’s on your mind) Resistance – blocking material that causes anxiety Transference – transfer one emotion from one relationship to the therapist Psychodynamic Focus on childhood experiences as precursors for the present problems Humanistic Aims to help people grow in self-awareness and self acceptance Client-centered therapy – therapist shows genuine empathy for the client and uses  active listening Paraphrase Invite clarification Reflect feelings Behavioral
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Applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors Uses classical and operant conditioning Counter conditioning – procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger  unwanted behaviors Exposure Therapies Exposing you to your fear Systematic desensitization – associates a relaxed state with gradually increasing  anxiety triggering stimuli Aversive Conditioning Associates something bad with an unwanted behavior Operant Condition Behavior modification – reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for  undesired behaviors Token Economy – people earn a token for producing a desired behavior Cognitive Teach people to think in more adaptive ways Rational-emotive behavior therapy Attempts to reconstruct a person’s belief system Group and Family Group therapy Several clients meet with therapist to solve personal problems Advantages: sense of belonging, cheaper Family therapy Treats the family as a system Is psychotherapy effective?
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