12 the us state department has organized several

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12The US State Department has organized several online seminars for Somali bloggers based in Canada, Africa, and Europe “to teach each other on how to improve their websites’ functionality and appearance while also reaching out to a wider audience” (Neumann, 2013).Other programs target youth directly, on the premise that MIL can positively empower youth participation in the marginalization of extremism if not its containment (Cohen, 2015). The UNAOC has recently focused on youth in the MENA region, pushing MIL initiatives in Jordan and in Turkey.13 They also support action through the popular culture of young people to reach out to them in places such as Jordan and Kenya.14UNDP has launched an international competition called “PEACEapp” to promote games and apps as a venue for cultural exchange, conflict management and violence prevention. UNESCO has launched many MIL-related initiatives and projects with a focus on youth or taking youth into consideration, including the MIL CLICKS15social media innovation, MIL capacity building for youth organizations, Global MIL Week16, MIL in Jordan project 17, NETMED project18in the Middle East which among other things empower youth with MIL competences for self-expression through media production and participation in social and political transformations. The organization has also supported research research resulting in the resource Opportunities for MIL in the Middle East and North Africa19, as well as capacity on MIL asa tool for dialogue and tolerance through MIL Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)in English20and Arabic21. In formal educational settings, the literature shows that online resources designed for teachers in a classroom-setting have tended to focus on debunking plot theory and radical propaganda on social networks. They expose rumours and fake news and encourage fact-11 12 UNESCO’s 2017 book “Terrorism and the Media. A handbook for Journalists”, written by Jean-Paul Marthoz.13 ; event/the-role-of-youth-preventing-violent-extremism/14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
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41checking online. They do not address violent radicalization per sebut they address the means of detecting extremist media content. Looking at the media themselves has always been part of media education that works on “authentic” sources. Articles about Inspire, Al-Qaeda’s
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