In the PNS the motor nerve fibers and the myelin sheath degenerate with

In the pns the motor nerve fibers and the myelin

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In the PNS, the motor nerve fibers and the myelin sheath degenerate with advancing age. Reflexes may be diminished or absent. Pupils decrease in size. Older patients may need more time to process questions, solve problems, or learn new information. Using the brain and keeping it active promote continued intellectual function in healthy older adults.
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NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS Genetic and acquired developmental disorders. Infections and inflammation, benign and malignant tumors, vascular or neuromuscular degeneration, metabolic and endocrine disorders, and chemical or physical trauma (Box 21.1) Causative factors Nurses can help prevent neurologic problems in many ways. The goals for Healthy People 2020 encourage health protection through education about safety and responsible self-care. Preventio n Evaluatio n Cranial nerves, Coordination and balance Neuromuscular function testing, Reflexes
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NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS CONT. Health promotion Protecting the Nervous System • Encourage people to wear helmets when biking, in-line skating, skateboarding, or riding motorcycles, and when involved in other sports activities that may lead to head injury. • Remind people that wearing safety hats or helmets when in a workplace where head injury is a danger reduces the number of injuries. • Review safety precautions when diving and swimming. To help prevent spinal cord injury, never dive into water of unknown depth. • Encourage people to fasten their seat belts before putting the car into gear. • Be certain that children are fastened into appropriate restraints. • Wear mask, gloves, long pants, and long-sleeved shirt when spraying with insecticide; wash up immediately afterward and change clothes. • Refrain from using recreational drugs, because they can affect the cardiovascular system and can cause a stroke.
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REFLEXES A reflex is an action or movement that is built into the nervous system and does not need the intervention of conscious thought to take place. (Automatic Response) Clonus is a continued rhythmic contraction of the muscle while there is continuous application of the stimulus Grading Reflexes Scale Gr ad e Descriptions 0/ 5 Absent 1/ 5 Weak response 2/ 5 Normal 3/ 5 Exaggerated response 4/ 5 Hyperreflexia and clonus Knee jerk or patellar reflex (and others) Babinski reflex Oculocephalic (“doll’s eye”) and oculovestibular reflexes
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NORMAL AND BABINSKI REFLEXES 15 Normal Adult – Toes flare out; Child – Toes flare in
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