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slope as they repeatedly check whether points are on the line through (1, 2) with slope 3, middle school students might abstract the equation (y – 2)/(x – 1) = 3. Noticing the regularity in the way terms cancel when expanding (x – 1)(x + 1), (x – 1)(x2+ x + 1), and (x – 1)(x3+ x2+ x + 1) might lead them to the general formula for the sum of a geometric series. As students work to solve a problem, mathematically proficient students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details and continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results. Connecting the Standards for Mathematical Practice to the Standards for Mathematical Content The eight Standards for Mathematical Practice described on the previous pages indicate ways in which developing student practitioners of the discipline of mathematics increasingly must engage with the subject matter as they grow in mathematical maturity and expertise throughout the elementary, middle, and high school years. It is important that curriculum, assessment, and professional development designers be aware of the need to connect the mathematical practices to the mathematical content standards.
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2016 Revised Alabama Course of Study: Mathematics9The Standards for Mathematical Content, are a balanced combination of procedure and understanding. Expectations that begin with the word “understand” are often especially good opportunities to connect mathematical practices to mathematical content. Students who lack understanding of a topic may rely on procedures too heavily. Without a flexible base from which to work, they may be less likely to consider analogous problems, represent problems coherently, justify conclusions, apply the mathematics to practical situations, use technology mindfully to work with the mathematics, explain the mathematics accurately to other students, pause for an overview, or deviate from a known procedure to find a shortcut. Thus, a lack of understanding effectively prevents a student from engaging in the mathematical practices. In this respect, those content standards which set an expectation of understanding are potential “points of intersection” between the Standards for Mathematical Practiceand the Standards for Mathematical Content. These points of intersection are intended to be weighted toward central and generative concepts in the school mathematics curriculum that most merit the necessary time, resources, innovative energies, and focus to qualitatively improve the curriculum, instruction, assessment, professional development, and student achievement in mathematics.