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are all manufactures by General Mills or Kellogs). Thus though it might appear as if one had a plethora ofgenuinely unique and different choices, they in fact are choosing between one or two companies – thesechoices are pseudo-choices. To bring out the sense of pseudo-needs and pseudo-choices take the case of 20 inch rims. While nice on an individual’s whip, we need to ask ourselves where did the desire to have expensive, ineffective, and luxurious rims on our cars come from. Is this a natural desire, is this something individuals naturally wakeup thinking and wanting, or, is this a desire that has been implanted in us by the ideological structures of society? In buying these rims are we fulfilling a natural need or an artificial need, is this something we really need, or something consumerist ideology tells us we need? When added to our account of alienation, ideology, the spectacle, and the like, it is easy to see how frail, insecure, and unfulfilled 58
people can easily fall prey to certain pseudo-choice/needs which promise us fulfillment and a spectacle life if we pursue such and such (all of which serves to further hinder revolutionary potentiality).Primitive Accumulation – Expropriation Primitive accumulation is a simple concept that captures the initial moments of capitalist production in its larger social-historical context. In its first beginnings, capitalists had to create and find the initial original sources of capital from which they could draw upon in the creation of a new capitalist system of production and capitalist society out of feudalism. In other words capitalists had to first accumulate the initial basis of capital, resources, wealth, and products, before they could build factories, spend resources on innovations in machinery, and the like. In order to acquire this initial stock of capital, the progenitors of capitalism had to primitively accumulate wealth, and in order to do this they expropriatedthe wealth, finances, and resources from poor peoples around the world. Out of this movement we find the horrors of European colonialism, imperialism, and slaveryspring forth, wherein Western Europe appropriated the wealth and resources from Latin America, Africa, Southeast Asia, China, the Middle East, and elsewhere, in order to accumulate the initial stocks of capital and wealth from which industrialists could draw in the creation of factories, new technologies, and a new system of production. In addition to this, during the process of this primitive accumulation native peoples across Europe were further removed from their prior positions as peasants and serfs, as the “enclosure movement” across Europe saw the private fiefdoms of the medieval system privatized and bought up by different large capitalist land-owners and developers. Losing their direct connection to the land and the production of food and goods, the individuals who once worked these lands were forced out of their homes, becoming landless individuals. As a result, these masses of individuals began to aggregate and travel to the growingcity-industrial centers of Europe. With this movement of primitive accumulation, Capitalists not only