Test 1 Notes Compilation CogPsych.docx

Disagreement among trained observers impasse in

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Disagreement among trained observers -> impasse In metaphysics o Debates about issues Is the Absolute beyond time? Reaction from philosophers to this brand of metaphysics o Logical positivism Logical Positivism Only direct observation + logic are the basis for knowledge Verificationism o Sentences such as “The Absolute is beyond Time.” Are meaningless because Nothing that is directly observable could determine the truth (or falsity) of the sentence To be meaningful is to be verifiable (at least in principle) Philosophy can be made more scientific by removing discussion of unobservable things Operationalism o The sciences can be made more scientific by replacing theoretical constructs with operational definitions o Ex. In physics, replace “temperature” with the operation of measuring the height of mercury in a thermometer Birth of Behaviorism Psychology is redefined as the study of behavior 1913, John Watson publishes “Psychology as the Behaviorist Sees It” o “Introspection forms no essential part of it” o It makes “behavior, not consciousness, the objective point of attack” Classical Conditioning (Pavlov, 1890s) o Bond between Stimulus (observable) and Response (observable) o Whatever intervenes between S and R is treated as an explored ‘black box’ Operant Conditioning (B.F. Skinner, 1938) o Role of reinforcement o Shaping spontaneous behavior Behaviorism becomes the dominant psychological theory int eh US o 1930’s – early 1960’s o “MIND” is purged from textbooks or referred to pejoratively as “mentalism” 3 characteristics of behaviorism Positivist o Only directly observable phenomena can be studied scientifically Associationist
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o The fundamental psychological phenomenon is the stimulus – response bond A more restrictive view of association than is found in philosophy) Empiricist o Learning is the most important psychological phenomenon o At birth, the organism is a tabula rasa (blank slate) that will be formed and shaped through experience with the environment Cognitive Theory Arose in reaction to behaviorism Positivist Uses theoretical constructs and indirect evidence Associationist Allows more complex representations than simple bonds; association is just one of many types of mental process Empiricist Learning is viewed as important, but so too are innate mechanisms and innate knowledge Indirect Evidence: Donders’ Method Developed by a Dutch physiologist Also known as the “Method of Subtraction” An example of a chronometric (“time measure”) method Tasks of different levels of complexity are nested inside of one another Reaction time (RT) is measured and attributed to mental activity Assumes that o Mental processes take measurable amounts of time o The times used by component processes are additive Indirect Evidence: Ebbinghaus (1885) Studied memory Pioneered the use of nonsense syllables o DAX, LUH, ZIF, etc.
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