7 in 2008 also in 2008 cotton s pesticide consumption

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declined from 19 % in 2000 to 15.7 % in 2008. Also in 2008, cotton s pesticide consumption was claimed to be 6.8 % of global use. This thirsty crop also requires 7,000 29,000 L of water to produce 1 kg of cotton fi ber (ISIS 2007 ). Historically, cotton was planted at low densities and rotated with other crops to ensure the optimum health of the soil. Pest cycles were taken into consideration before planting and harvesting. Signi fi cant amounts of pesticides began to be applied from the mid-twentieth century. The advent of dichlorodiphenyltrichloro- ethane and other neurotoxins were considered to be cheaper ways of controlling pests compared with strategic crop management and the efforts of agricultural laborers (Haenow.com 2012 ). Today, however, there are increasing concerns that the pesticides used in conventional (versus organic ) cotton farming increasingly threaten people, wildlife, and the environment; as insects gradually become resis- tant to pesticides, ever-increasing amounts of pesticides need to be applied to be effective, resulting in ecological damage and crop failures (ISAAA 2011 ). In 2010, organic cotton represented 0.76 % of global cotton production. Organic cotton was grown in 22 countries worldwide, with the top ten producer countries led by India, followed by (in order of rank) Turkey, Syria, Tanzania, China, the United States, Uganda, Peru, Egypt and Burkina Faso. Approximately 220,000 farmers grew the organic fi ber (Ferrigno 2012 ). In the United States, it is required by law that any producer wanting to label and sell a product as organic must meet the standards established by the Organic Food Production Act of 1990, enforced by the state organic program. This act speci fi es the procedures and regulations for the production and handling of organic crops (US Department of Agriculture 2013 ). The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) was developed in 2006 through a collaboration by leading standard setters. The aim of GOTS is to de fi ne requirements that are recognized worldwide and that ensure the organic status of textiles, from the harvesting of raw materials through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing all the way to labeling, in Development of Eco-labels for Sustainable Textiles 151
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order to provide credible assurance to the consumer (Global Standard 2013 ). The preparatory processes required before dyeing and printing are similar for organic cotton and conventional cotton processing. However, some chemicals, such as substances with high adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) values, bluing agents, chelating agents, chlorine compounds, and formaldehyde, are prohibited for use on organic textiles. All dyestuffs should conform to ETAD ( 1997 ) restrictions regarding residual heavy metals and banned aromatic amines. The fi rst choice for dyeing organic fabrics, where applicable, could be plant-based natural vegetable dyes; however, they have never been subjected to rigorous eco-toxicological test- ing, and their commercial availability is limited. The best choice may be low-impact dyes, such as fi ber-reactive dyestuffs made from petrochemicals.
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